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Where do the Earth’s riches come from?

  • Exhibition Text

    • The Earth’s resources — everything from oil and gas to metal ores to fresh water — are the basis of modern civilization. One of the most important processes in the formation of these resources is the flow of fluids through rock. Flowing hot water dissolves metals and concentrates them in ore deposits. Decayed organic matter flows through cracks and pores in rocks to accumulate in oil reservoirs. Water flowing underground collects in porous rocks and forms aquifers, which are tapped for fresh water.

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  • For Educators

    • Topic: Earth Science

      Subtopic: Minerals and Resources

      Keywords: groundwater, Hydrogeology, Natural resources, ore deposits, Petroleum reserves

In This Section

Anatomy of an ore deposit

Anatomy of an ore deposit

A major ore deposit that was formed by the flow of metal-laden seawater through hot rocks is at the Kidd Creek Mine in Ontario, Canada.

Kidd Creek Mine

Kidd creek mine

Near Timmins, Ontario, geologists discovered one of the world’s largest deposits of zinc, copper, lead, silver, and tin.

Ores from Hot Water

Ores from hot water

Driven by heat from bodies of molten rock in the crust, hot water circulates through cracks, dissolving minerals in the rocks through which it passes.

Rare Minerals from Pegmatite

Rare minerals from pegmatites

As molten granite crystallizes, the melt that remains becomes enriched in water and rare elements such as boron, lithium, tantalum, and niobium.

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