While advances in imaging technologies have opened new pathways for scientists to study natural phenomena, researchers continue to make remarkable discoveries using techniques that have been around for decades. John Sparks, associate curator in the Museum’s Department of Ichthyology, uses enzymes and dyes to reveal key anatomical structures in different species of ﬁshes for study of their function and evolution.
Among his study subjects are ponyﬁshes (family Leiognathidae), a group of bioluminescent ﬁshes common in the Indian Ocean and Western Paciﬁc that have a light organ. This internal structure, which varies among ponyﬁsh species, surrounds the esophagus and contains luminescent bacteria, the source of the ﬁsh’s light. The light organ is larger in males, which have a second species-speciﬁc anatomical feature: translucent skin patches, which allow them to use the light organ in displays to attract mates in turbid waters. (Bioluminescent organisms will be explored in the exciting new exhibition Creatures of Light: Nature’s Bioluminescence, which opens at the Museum on March 31, 2012.)
In recent years, a radically new vision of the universe has emerged: only 4 percent of it consists of the matter that makes up humans, the Museum, and every planet, star, and galaxy. The remaining 96 remains a mystery.
Researchers have uncovered four new species of bees in New York City, one of which has an especially fitting name: Lasioglossum gotham. The newly described city dwellers are among 11 East Coast bees recently identified by Cornell University postdoctoral researcher Jason Gibbs in the journal Zootaxa with the help of vast digital and physical bee collections at the American Museum of Natural History.
The completion of the Human Genome Project 10 years ago promised a new era of disease treatment and personalized medicine. But have these hopes been realized? On Wednesday, November 30, a panel of experts that includes geneticists, an ethicist, and a legal scholar will engage in a lively discussion on the topic of The Human Genome and Human Health: Will the Promise Be Fulfilled? Discussing where genomics should go in the future, how it might change the doctor’s office in the next decade, and the disparities that exist in the developing world, the panelists will evaluate both the promises of sequencing the human genome and the reality. Below, Rob DeSalle, who curated the Museum’s exhibition The Genomic Revolution 10 years ago, addresses three common myths about genetics.