The proportion of incoming solar radiation reflected back into space either by the Earth's surface or by particles in the atmosphere.
The envelope of gases surrounding a planet, e.g., Earth's atmosphere consists of approximately 80 percent nitrogen and 20 percent oxygen.
A colorless or white crystalline compound occurring naturally as the minerals calcite or aragonite in rocks like chalk, limestone, and marble.
A molecule consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms (CO2). Its gas is denser than air.
Average weather conditions of a region, including temperature, precipitation, and winds.
The height of an object above a particular reference level, usually sea level.
A permanent body of ice that shows evidence of downslope or outward movement due to the stress of its own weight.
The study of glaciers.
An increase in Earth's average temperature.
A continent-sized mass of glacier ice that overwhelms the underlying topography.
A period of warmth separating two major glacial periods.
A common sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium carbonate, predominantly formed from the skeletons of marine organisms, calcareous sand, microorganisms, shell fragments, and coral.
A unit of length in the metric system equal to 3.28 feet.
The half of Earth north of the equator.
A forecast about a future situation based on the study of a current situation.