A moving stream of air.
See: Atmospheric pressure.
A simple photosynthetic plant that lives in aquatic environments.
Occurs when algae grow very fast to accumulate into dense patches near the waterÃ s surface. Ã¬Harmful algal bloomsÃ® contain toxins or cause negative impacts.
Pressure exerted by the mass of the atmosphere above a point on, or above, a planet as a result of gravitational attraction between the planet and its atmosphere. Low pressure indicates pressure that is below average, while high pressure indicates pressure that is above average.
An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
Average weather conditions of a region, including temperature, precipitation, and winds.
Information, often in the form of measurements or observations, which can be analyzed.datasetA collection of data over time.
On the time scale of decades, or tens of years.
The study of past climates by analyzing the annual rings of trees.
A community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
A large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate phenomenon linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central equatorial Pacific. El NiÃ’o represents the warm phase of the El NiÃ’o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.
An increase in EarthÃ s average temperature.
Gases, primarily water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide, and methane, which increase global temperatures by absorbing outgoing radiation emitted by the EarthÃ s surface. Also called GHGs.
A warm ocean current of the northern Atlantic Ocean off eastern North America. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico, then flows northward along the southeast coast of the US. North of Cape Hatteras, NC, the Gulf Stream veers northeastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
A high-speed air current in the upper atmosphere.
The areas between about 30âˆž and 55âˆž latitude, in either the Northern or Southern hemisphere.
North Atlantic Oscillation
A seesaw of atmospheric mass between the Icelandic low pressure system and the Azores high pressure system.North Atlantic Oscillation indexThe difference of normalized sea level pressure between the Azores high and the Icelandic low for a four-month winter season (December-March).
A chemically active gas, the molecule of which consists of three oxygen atoms (O 3). In the stratosphere, ozone acts as a protective barrier for EarthÃ s surface by absorbing much of the potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation that comes from the Sun. In the troposphere, ozone acts as a harmful pollutant and is one of the primary greenhouse gases.
The amount of dissolved salts in water.
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere. The stratosphere extends from approximately ten to fifty kilometers above EarthÃ s surface.
The lowest layer of EarthÃ s atmosphere in contact with EarthÃ s surface. Most weather occurs within the troposphere. The troposphere extends from EarthÃ s surface to elevations of approximately 10-15 kilometers.