In 1993, spelunkers came across an extraordinary find in the farthest chamber of a winding underground cave near the town of Altamura in southern Italy. It is a hominid skeleton—possibly in the Neanderthal line—which appears extraordinarily well-preserved and nearly complete. Scientists from the University of Bari have been investigating the remains ever since. For preservation’s sake, the scientists and the Italian government have decided to leave the skeleton in the cave, making analyzing it a technological challenge. This Bulletin highlights the 3D and remote sensing tools that scientists are now using to study and classify this unique fossil.