Credits

Researchers

Ignacio Martínez, Manuel Rosa, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Pilar Jarabo, Rolf Quam, and Carlos Lorenzo
Paper

  • Presented at the Acoustics ’08 conference in Paris, France
  • Martínez, I. et al. “Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain.” PNAS (Published online June 22, 2004).

Images

  • Sima de los Huesos skull (D. Finnin/AMNH)
  • Homo heidelbergensis reconstruction (R. Mickens/AMNH)
  • Ear bone extraction photos (Atapuerca Research Team)
  • Ear reconstruction (UCM-ISCIII Center for Human Evolution and Behavior)