Grades 6-8

James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology

Online Resource, Article

James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology

Until the late 18th century, most people believed the Earth was about 6,000 years old. Hutton changed this belief by proposing that geologic forces operate at the same rate today as in the past.

Reefs in Crisis

Online Resource, Article

Reefs in Crisis

Humans have harmlessly harvested coral reefs for thousands—or even hundreds of thousands—of years. So why has our behavior in recent years suddenly put reefs at risk?

Studying Tree Rings to Learn About Global Climate

Online Resource, Article

Studying Tree Rings to Learn About Global Climate

By taking biopsy-like samples from centuries-old Siberian pines, scientists have reconstructed a 300-year record of temperature changes for the Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere.

How to Calculate a Biodiversity Index

Article

How to Calculate a Biodiversity Index

One is the riskiest number... A more diverse plant population has a better chance of adapting to changes in the environment. Learn how to quantify the biodiversity of any area.

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