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Grades 9-12

900a

Online Resource, Article

James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology

Until the late 18th century, most people believed the Earth was about 6,000 years old. Hutton changed this belief by proposing that geologic forces operate at the same rate today as in the past.

901a

Online Resource, Article

Inge Lehmann: Discoverer of the Earth's Inner Core

Each one of the thousands of earthquakes that occur every year offers a brief glimpse of what's happening deep inside the Earth. Lehmann used seismic signals to change our knowledge of the Earth's core.

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Online Resource, Article

Retrieving a Stromatolite from the Sahara Desert

Why did museum scientists travel to the Sahara to retrieve a boulder? This stromatolite was built by microbes, the only life that existed on Earth until about a billion years ago.

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Online Resource, Article

Studying Tree Rings to Learn About Global Climate

By taking biopsy-like samples from centuries-old Siberian pines, scientists have reconstructed a 300-year record of temperature changes for the Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere.

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Article

Zircon Chronology: Dating the Oldest Material on Earth

The mineral zircon serves as a tiny time capsule, recording geologic events—it's especially useful because the oldest discovered grains (4.2 billion to 4.3 billion years old) are not much younger than the Earth itself.

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Young Naturalist Awards Essay

When Disaster Strikes

An earthquake prediction when she was young peaked the interest of this eighth-grader from Michigan. While the earthquake never occurred, her fascination continues to this day.

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Young Naturalist Awards Essay

Mars: Past, Present, Future

In the early 1900s, some astronomers believed that the color contrasts on Mars' surface were great oceans. Today we know they are huge dust storms. Track how our knowledge of Mars has changed with this seventh-grader.

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