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2004 Expanding the Ark: The Emerging Science and Practice of Invertebrate Conservation

One of the greatest challenges facing the conservation community today lies in identifying, managing, and conserving invertebrate biodiversity.  In direct contrast to their vast numbers, rich diversity, and vital role in terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems, many invertebrate species and groups remain undescribed and underrepresented in conservation planning, management, and policy strategies.

Expanding the Ark: The Emerging Science and Practice of Invertebrate Conservation was convened to examine the status of invertebrate biodiversity.  Speakers from around the world considered a broad range of perspectives on how best to advance an invertebrate conservation agenda.  The Symposium provided a venue to engage the scientific community, conservation practitioners, policy makers, and the public in a dialogue on the fate of invertebrate biodiversity, and to map concrete approaches for future action.

The symposium was held in collaboration with Conservation International, the National Park Service, NatureServe, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Xerces Society.  Support for the symposium was provided by Daniel and Sheryl Tishman, and John Tishman.  Additional thanks go to The Explorers Club for loan of easels for the poster session.


AGENDA

DAY ONE
DEVELOPING AN INVERTEBRATE AGENDA: CONSERVATION STATUS, THREATS, AND SCIENCE TOOLS

8:50 SESSION I
PLENARY REPORTS ON INVERTEBRATE CONSERVATION

Session Moderator: Sacha Spector, Manager, Invertebrate Conservation Program, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
Michael J. Novacek, Senior Vice President and Provost of Science, American Museum of Natural History
Ellen V. Futter, President, American Museum of Natural History

Plenary
THE IMPORTANCE OF INVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY
Claire Kremen, Assistant Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University

Plenary
TOWARD A CONSERVATION AGENDA FOR TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATES
Tim R. New, Reader/Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Australia

Plenary
HIDDEN DIVERSITY: INVERTEBRATES IN CAVES
David C. Culver, Professor of Biology, American University

Plenary
OVERVIEW AND STATUS OF FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES
David Strayer, Freshwater Ecologist, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY

Plenary
HABITAT DESTRUCTION AND ECOLOGICAL EXTINCTION OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES
Jeremy B.C. Jackson, William and Mary B. Ritter Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego

Panel Discussion
David C. Culver, Professor of Biology, American University
Jeremy B.C. Jackson, William and Mary B. Ritter Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego
Claire Kremen, Assistant Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University
Tim R. New, Reader/Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Australia
David Strayer, Freshwater Ecologist, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY

2:10 SESSION II
THREATS TO INVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY

Session Moderator: Damayanti Buchori, Conservation Entomologist, Department of Pest and Plant Diseases, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

400 MILLION YEARS ON SIX LEGS: THE EVOLUTIONARY SUCCESS OF INSECTS AND THEIR MODERN CHALLENGES
David Grimaldi, Curator of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History
Robert R. Dunn, Fulbright Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Environmental Biology, Curtin University of Technology, Australia

PESTICIDES AS THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION
Peter G. Kevan, Professor, Departments of Environmental Biology and Botany, University of Guelph, Ontario

ALIENS FROM “OUT OF PLACE!” MANAGING ILLEGAL ALIENS ON AN EXPANDING ARK—WITHOUT ROCKING THE BOAT
George Boettner, Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

Panel Discussion
George Boettner, Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts-Amherst
David Grimaldi, Curator of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History
Peter G. Kevan, Professor, Departments of Environmental Biology and Botany, University of Guelph, Ontario

4:00 SESSION III
ASSESSING INVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY—BARRIERS, BOTTLENECKS, AND SOLUTIONS

Session Moderator: Elizabeth Johnson, Metropolitan Biodiversity Program Manager, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History

ADDRESSING THE NEEDS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF INVERTEBRATES IN CONSERVATION PRACTICES
Piotr Naskrecki, Director, Invertebrate Diversity Initiative, Conservation International

A NEW CENTURY DAWNS ON INVERTEBRATE SURVEYS: LESSONS FROM 20 YEARS OF TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATE SURVEYS
Scott E. Miller, Senior Biodiversity Advisor to the Director, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
Jonathan A. Coddington, Research Entomologist, Department of Systematic Biology, Smithsonian Institution

EFFECTIVE INVENTORY OF CRYPTIC MARINE INVERTEBRATES: RAP VERSUS TAP
Paula M. Mikkelsen, Assistant Curator, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History
Rudiger Bieler, Associate Curator, Department of Zoology, Field Museum

ARE INVERTEBRATE FOCAL TAXA FULFILLING THEIR PROMISE?
Sacha Spector, Manager, Invertebrate Conservation Program, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History

KEEPING TABS ON THE LITTLE THINGS THAT RUN THE WORLD: INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FOR THE CONSERVATION OF INVERTEBRATES
Lawrence L. Master, Chief Zoologist, NatureServe

BIOINFORMATICS AND INVERTEBRATE MONITORING: APPLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE (NBII)
Michael Ruggiero, Director, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, U.S. Geological Survey, Smithsonian Institution

CONSERVATION OF INVERTEBRATES IN ENGLAND, USING BEETLES AS AN EXAMPLE — A PARTNERSHIP OF AGENCY, ACADEMIC AND AMATEUR
Roger S. Key, Senior Invertebrate Ecologist, Terrestrial Wildlife Team, English Nature

MONITORING FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES: IDENTIFYING PATTERNS OF BIODIVERSITY AND TAXA AT RISK BY MINING WATER RESOURCE AGENCY DATA
Charles P. Hawkins, Director, Western Center for Monitoring and Assessment of Freshwater Ecosystems, Utah State University

6:00 POSTER SESSION AND RECEPTION


DAY TWO
INTEGRATING SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT, POLICY, AND EDUCATION

8:50 SESSION IV
DESIGNING EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR INVERTEBRATES

Session Moderator: Dan Ashe, Science Advisor to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
Eleanor J. Sterling, Director, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History

Plenary
LANDSCAPE TRIAGE: STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING INVERTEBRATES
Michael J. Samways, Professor and Chair, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa

MULTI-SPECIES, REGIONAL HABITAT CONSERVATION PLANNING AND THE CONSERVATION OF LISTED INVERTEBRATES UNDER THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
Jim A. Bartel, Field Supervisor, Carlsbad Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

DESIGN ELEMENTS OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: THE NECESSARY INGREDIENTS FOR SUCCESS
Gary E. Davis, Visiting Chief Scientist, Ocean Programs, U.S. National Park Service

LINES ON THE WATER: OCEAN USE PLANNING AND ZONING
John C. Ogden, Director, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Professor of Biology, University of South Florida
Elliott A. Norse, President, Marine Conservation Biology Institute

INSECT CONSERVATION IN CHANGING LANDSCAPE: THE ROLE OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEM IN MAINTAINING INSECT DIVERSITY
Damayanti Buchori, Conservation Entomologist, Department of Pest and Plant Diseases, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

MANAGING VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES SO AS TO MINIMIZE NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON NON-TARGET INVERTEBRATES
Howard S. Ginsberg, Ecologist, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, and Unit Leader, Patuxent Coastal Field Station, University of Rhode Island

Panel Discussion
Jim A. Bartel, Field Supervisor, Carlsbad Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Damayanti Buchori, Conservation Entomologist, Department of Pest and Plant Diseases, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Gary E. Davis, Visiting Chief Scientist, Ocean Programs, U.S. National Park Service
Howard S. Ginsberg, Ecologist, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, and Unit Leader, Patuxent Coastal Field Station, University of Rhode Island
John C. Ogden, Director, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Professor of Biology, University of South Florida
Michael J. Samways, Professor and Chair, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa

11:30 SESSION V
CHALLENGES FOR MANAGING DISTURBANCE REGIMES AND INVERTEBRATE SPECIES

THE PERSISTENCE OF MARINE RESERVES IN THE FACE OF CATASTROPHES
Steven Gaines, Director, Marine Science Institute, University of California at Santa Barbara

SINK OR SWIM: THE CHALLENGES OF CONSERVING FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES IN A WORLD OF REGULATED RIVERS
George E. Schuler, Director, Upper Delaware Program (NY), The Nature Conservancy

THE ROLE OF FIRE IN MANAGING HABITAT FOR AT-RISK INVERTEBRATES
Cheryl B. Schultz, Assistant Professor, School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University

KARNER BLUE BUTTERFLY HABITAT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS AT NECEDAH NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
Richard King, Staff Biologist, Necedah National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin

Panel Discussion
Panel Moderator: David L. Wagner, Associate Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut
Steven Gaines, Director, Marine Science Institute, University of California at Santa Barbara
Richard King, Staff Biologist, Necedah National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin
George E. Schuler, Director, Upper Delaware Program (NY), The Nature Conservancy
Cheryl B. Schultz, Assistant Professor, School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University

2:10 SESSION VI
ENDANGERED AND THREATENED INVERTEBRATES

Session Moderator: Mace Vaughan, Staff Entomologist, Xerces Society

INVERTEBRATES AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT—AN ASSESSMENT OF THIRTY YEARS PROTECTING THE SPINELESS
Scott Hoffman Black, Executive Director, Xerces Society

CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY OF NATIVE INVERTEBRATES UNDER THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
Gary Frazer, Assistant Director for Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

IUCN RED LIST APPROACHES AND CRITERIA FOR INVERTEBRATES
Mary Seddon, Section Head, Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, National Museums and Galleries of Wales

Panel Discussion
Scott Hoffman Black, Executive Director, Xerces Society
Gary Frazer, Assistant Director for Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Mary Seddon, Section Head, Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, National Museums and Galleries of Wales

3:35 SESSION VII
COMMERCIAL HARVEST MANAGEMENT

Session Moderator: Rosemarie Gnam, Assistant Director, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History

PROTECTING MARINE INVERTEBRATES AND BUILDING OCEANIC ARKS (MARINE RESERVES) > MAXIMIZING YIELD SUSTAINING USE
Jack A. Sobel, Director, Strategic Conservation Science and Policy, The Ocean Conservancy

AN OVERVIEW OF U.S. INVERTEBRATE TRADE DATA
Laura Noguchi, Biologist, International Affairs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Anne St. John, Biologist, Division of Management Authority for CITES, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

BEYOND BUTTERFLIES: INSECT FARMING EXPANDS TO SERVE GROWING FOREIGN MARKETS
Steve Prchal, Founder and Director, Sonoran Arthropod Studies Institute

Panel Discussion
Laura Noguchi, Biologist, International Affairs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Steve Prchal, Founder and Director, Sonoran Arthropod Studies Institute
Jack A. Sobel, Director, Strategic Conservation Science and Policy, The Ocean Conservancy
Anne St. John, Biologist, Division of Management Authority for CITES, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

4:35 SESSION VIII
BUILDING PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR INVERTEBRATE CONSERVATION A PANEL DISCUSSION

Panelists
May Berenbaum, Head, Department of Entomology, University of Illinois
Damayanti Buchori, Conservation Entomologist, Department of Pest and Plant Diseases, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Thomas Eisner, Director, Cornell Institute for Research in Chemical Ecology, Cornell University
Robert Michael Pyle, Founder, Xerces Society
Steven K. Webster, Senior Marine Biologist, Monterey Bay Aquarium

CONCLUDING REMARKS

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