Evolutionary Biogeography for Conservation

More than 150 years after the publication of Darwin’s The Origin of Species, there are still gaps in knowledge about the processes by which species arise and how different environmental factors—and potential human action—contribute to the patterns where species are found, or their biogeography. An improved understanding of these processes is crucial in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental changes that threaten global biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation has historically focused on protecting hotspots of diversity as defined by patterns of species richness. But how can knowledge of evolutionary process inform conservation planning and the spatial prioritization of conservation actions? In other words, how can we conserve not only species, but also the processes that generate and maintain continued evolution?  

The CBC's Approach  

The CBC asks: How can we – the global community and local stewards of biodiversity – conserve not just species and ecosystems, but also the links and contexts that generate and maintain them? In this project, the CBC seeks to address this challenge through improved scientific understanding of the evolutionary processes that generate diversification, and in particular how they are influenced by the environment.    

Two lemurs at Tsimbazaza Zoo in Madagascar

Black lemurs (Eulemur macaco) at the Tsimbazaza Zoo in Madagascar. © Chris Raxworthy

We use ecological niche models (ENMs – also called species distribution models or SDMs) to test hypotheses about the biogeographic history of organisms, and to predict future changes in their distributions in response to environmental changes, such as climate change. Our case studies include lemurs, reptiles and amphibians in Madagascar, doucs in Southeast Asia, and jaguars in South America.

Our case study results suggest that multiple types of speciation are occurring in some lineages, including both geographic (allopatric) and ecological (parapatric) speciation processes.

Thus, conservation efforts should expand their targets to include features that facilitate these processes such as key geographic barriers and transitional ecotone environments. This work takes a crucial first step towards better understanding how evolutionary processes and the evolutionary ecology of species may respond to continued environmental change.

A summary overview of the accomplishments of the evolutionary biogeography project

Project staff organize the New York Regional Species Distribution Modeling discussion group, which brings together leading researchers from across the New York Metro area, including professors, graduate students, and postdoctoral scientists from CUNY, SUNY Stony Brook, NYU, Columbia, Yale, UConn, and Princeton (among others) to present research and new methods related to spatial modeling for biogeography and conservation.

Project partners:
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This work was partially supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)