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1999 Ngoc Linh

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Biogeography & Conservation
In 1999, the joint Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History (CBC-AMNH), Institute for Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) and Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG) biotic inventory survey teams visited the Ngoc Linh Mountain Range in Quang Nam Province, central Vietnam. Ngoc Linh (2598m) is the second highest mountain in Vietnam and its associated peaks form part of the Kon Tum Plateau in the mountainous Western Highlands at the southern end of the Truong Son Range. The primary work site on the northeastern slope was chosen to complement previous and ongoing research focused on expanding the protected areas network in the region.
The Western Highlands represent the southern extension of the Truong Son Mountains into Vietnam, and they share the biogeographic and climatic factors which make the entire range a region of high species diversity and endemism. Geologic, topographic and climatic variation along this extended chain of mountains and drier lowland passes results in separate biodiversity and conservation significance for the different forested ecosystems. Ngoc Linh Range and the high altitude montane habitats of the Kon Tum Plateau fall within the distinct Central Annam Mountains (Ma) subunit of the Indochinese subregion. There are significant climatic differences between the northeast (Quang Nam) and southwest (Kon Tum) sides of the range. The southern and western exposures are subject to the southwest monsoon and are much drier with a distinct xerophytic component; the northern and eastern sides experience the northeastern monsoon, are more humid and have higher monthly and annual precipitation. The dominant vegetation type at all elevations is montane broadleaf evergreen forest; within this broad category forest types can be highly varied depending on local microclimates. Elfin cloud forest ("moss forest") is distributed along the high mountain ridge separating the two provinces. At medium and high elevations (above 1000m) families representative of a Sino-Himalayan flora are present, including the Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Ericaceae. Small areas of mixed coniferous/evergreen forest contain the Vietnamese endemic Pinus dalatensis. Below 1000m, forest diversity is high with no one family dominant; species include Sino-Himalayan (Juglandaceae, Ulmaceae) and Malesian (Myrtaceae, Sterculiaceae) elements. A large number of montane passerine species and subspecies occur in the central Truong Son which are endemics or near-endemics to the region. Two new species have recently been described from Ngoc Linh, the Golden-Winged Laughingthrush Garrulax ngoclinhensis and the Black-Crowned Barwing Actinodurasodangorum. The Kon Tum Plateau has recently been designated one of four Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs) in Vietnam.
The subtropical montane forests of the Kon Tum Plateau are significant to national, regional and global conservation. High levels of floral and ornithological diversity are indicative of the biogeographical uniqueness of this sub-unit, especially the high altitude montane areas. The CBC's collaborative biotic surveys of the northeastern slope of Ngoc Linh (Quang Nam Province) were designed to increase basic understanding of multi-taxa diversity patterns in the region and to aid in conservation efforts. Currently the southwestern slopes (Kon Tum Province) of the Ngoc Linh range are incorporated in the Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve (NR). Extension of the nature reserve to include the northeastern slopes would greatly increase protection for this species-rich forested ecosystem. The expanded reserve area would be contiguous with Song Thanh-Dakpring Proposed NR, covering a combined 160,000ha of Vietnam in a continuous reserve chain abutting the Xe Sap National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA) proposed extension in Lao PDR. Results from this survey were combined with research conducted by Birdlife International Vietnam, the Forestry Inventory Protection Institute (FIPI) in Hanoi, and the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), in a feasibility study for the inclusion of Ngoc Linh (Quang Nam) in Vietnam's protected area system.

Work Sites
Collections and observations were made in forests, streams and rivers located on the northeastern flank of the Ngoc Linh Mountain Range in Tra My District, Quang Nam Province (15° 11' N, 108° 02' E). The dominant forest habitats on these slopes are lowland through montane broad-leaved evergreen communities, with deciduous components below 1000m and small mixed coniferous areas above 1000m. The dry season is short (February and March) and total annual rainfall exceeds 3500mm per year, with higher elevations experiencing heavier precipitation. Sino-Himalayan and Malesian tree families are intermixed and present at all altitudes. Up to approximately 900m (low montane forest) the habitat was heavily disturbed, with forests persisting only in ravines and steeper slopes. At higher elevations (medium and high montane forests) disturbance levels were lower and the canopy became increasingly closed. Surveys were carried out along an altitudinal range of 200-1650m, with sampling efforts focused at main work site elevations of 200m, 920-940m, 1100m and 1450m. Freshwater fishes were collected from the pools, backwaters, side streams and main waterways of four rivers in the Tra My District: Tranh, Nuoc Ta, Loo and Nam Nin. Stream bottom composition included rock, gravel, sand and mud. Disturbance of the waterways and surrounding vegetation varied between sites.

At each locality the specific work site locations and microhabitat sampling regimes varied between the taxa collected, and additional localities were sampled for some groups. Small mammal and bat surveys were carried out concurrently at the Ngoc Linh work sites by Dr. Judith Eger, Dr. Lorelie Mitchell and Burton Lim from the Royal Ontario Museum. A detailed list of taxa-specific work sites, methods and dates is included in the Biotic Survey Reports.

 

Arthropod Research

Survey Team
The 1999 arthropod survey team included Dr. David Grimaldi, Dr. Lee Herman, Dr. Eleanor Sterling, Christine A. Johnson, Tam C. Nguyen and Xin-Ping Wang from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Dr. Khuat Dang Long from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Arthropod surveys were carried out March 11-April 16, 1999, in the foothills of the Ngoc Linh Range, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province (15° 11' N, 108° 02' E). Located on the Kon Tum plateau in Vietnam's central highlands, the area is contiguous to the southwest with an existing protected area, Ngoc Linh (Kon Tum) Nature Reserve. This field survey was part of a collaborative effort to assess the feasibility of establishing an adjacent protected area at Ngoc Linh (Quang Nam) (Tordoff, Tran & Tran, 2000). The proposed site is currently awaiting approval by the provincial people's committee and the central government (BirdLife, 2002).
Permanent passive traps and general collecting techniques were used at elevations of 700-1470m. Up to approximately 900m, the habitat was mostly degraded cultivated land with some forest persisting in ravines and on steeper slopes. These remnants were low montane broad-leaved evergreen forest with a diverse mixture of both Sino-Himalayan (Juglandaceae, Ulmaceae, Lauraceae) and Malesian (Myrtaceae, Sterculiaceae) species. At higher elevations the vegetation intergraded with medium montane broad-leaved evergreen forest. This habitat became increasingly dominant above 1000m and in general was typical of Vietnamese montane forests. The characteristic species were representative of Sino-Himalayan floral elements (Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae) with some conifer species mixed in.
Additional small collections were made in highly degraded and agricultural habitats at 200m.

Methods
Methods and collecting protocols were designed to effectively sample focal taxa and the general terrestrial arthropod fauna, to provide an altitudinal distribution profile of Ngoc Linh's lower northeastern slopes, and to generate results for use in comparative analyses within and between survey locations.

Focal groups were chosen to provide a cross-section of arthropod biodiversity and to take advantage of AMNH and IEBR researchers' expertise. The following focal families were included in sampling protocols: Arachnida, Reduviidae (Heteroptera), Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), Vespidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera), and Mycetophilidae and Drosophilidae (Diptera).

Collecting methods can be broadly classified as either permanent traps emptied at regular intervals or active collecting techniques. Coordinated house malaise traps and pitfall lines with drift fences were placed at four work site elevations: 950m, 1080m, 1290m and 1460m. Additional malaise traps were placed in suitable microhabitats at 830m and 920m. All permanent traps were emptied on a weekly basis and the majority were run for the duration of study. Nighttime collections using mercury vapor lamps and black lights were made near the 950m and 1460m work sites and at additional locations at 200m and 920m.
General collecting methods were used to sample arthropods around the four stationary trap work sites and in suitable microhabitats at elevations of 200m and 700-1470m. Active collecting techniques included sweep netting, aerial netting, and hand collecting.

Preliminary Results
Approximately 6,300 arthropod specimens were collected during the 1999 biotic surveys at Ngoc Linh. The materials have been cleaned, sorted to order, and the wet collections have been labeled. Focal group specimens in the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Heteroptera have been removed for analysis by taxonomic specialists. Additionally, all specimens in the Reduviidae (Heteroptera) have been sorted, mounted and labeled. To process the large number of specimens collected during the three-year inventory project, the CBC has established a dedicated invertebrate preparation laboratory (for more information, please visit the Invertebrate Research Laboratory).
Analyses of these collections are still in the early stages and no additional information is currently available. Results, including identifications, descriptions, and information on species diversity and arthropod community structure, will be included as they are completed.

Literature Cited - Arthropod Research
BirdLife International. 2002. "Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam." Retrieved February 14, 2002 from BirdLife International Vietnam Programme web site: http://www.wing-wbsj.or.jp/~vietnam/source_book/index.htm. (Second edition: http://birdlifeindochina.org/birdlife/source_book/index.html)

Tordoff, A.W., Tran Hieu Minh and Tran Quang Ngoc. 2000. "A Feasibility Study for the Establishment of Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam." BirdLife International Vietnam Programme, Hanoi.

 

Herpetology Research

Survey Team
Nguyen Quang Truong from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi, carried out the 1999 herpetofauna survey.

Study Sites
Specimens were collected March 10-April 2, 1999, at Ngoc Linh Range, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province (15° 11' N, 108° 02' E). This field survey was part of a collaborative effort to assess the feasibility of establishing a Nature Reserve at Ngoc Linh (Quang Nam) contiguous with the existing Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province. Preliminary results from the CBC-AMNH/IEBR herpetofauna survey are included in "A feasibility study for the establishment of Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam" (Tordoff, Tran & Tran, 2000).

Sampling efforts focused around four work sites at Ngoc Linh (Quang Nam): 1) Thon 2 Village, 920m; 2) Camp 1, 940m; 3) worksite, 1100m; and 4) Camp 2, 1460m. Sampling occurred in a variety of suitable microhabitats near these work sites and covered a total elevation range of 800-1500m. Up to approximately 1000m the habitat was mostly degraded cultivated land with some forest persisting in ravines and on steeper slopes. These remnants were low montane broad-leaved evergreen forest with a diverse mixture of both Sino-Himalayan (Juglandaceae, Ulmaceae, Lauraceae) and Malesian (Myrtaceae, Sterculiaceae) species. At higher elevations this forest type intergraded with medium montane broad-leaved evergreen forest, which became increasingly dominant above 1000m. The characteristic species were representative of Sino-Himalayan floral elements (Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae) with some conifer species mixed in, and the habitat typical of Vietnamese montane forests above 1000m.

Methods
The primary sampling method was visual encounters during day and nighttime opportunistic collecting in appropriate microhabitats. The vast majority of specimens were obtained this way. Visual encounters included searches along streams, under rocks and logs, and within leaf litter. A small number of specimens (<10) were collected from pitfall trap lines established by the entomology survey team.

Results
A total of 258 specimens were collected during the 1999 herpetofauna survey, representing 23 species and 5 families of amphibians and 11 species and 6 families of reptiles. All specimens were fixed in formalin and preserved in alcohol. Photographs and tissue samples for DNA analysis were collected from a sub-set of specimens. Approximately one-third of the alcohol-preserved specimens have been repatriated to the IEBR in Vietnam; the rest are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Herpetology at the AMNH. Additional specimens will be returned after identifications and descriptions are completed.

The Ngoc Linh survey recorded high levels of species diversity and endemism for the herpetofauna. Approximately 26% (6/23) of amphibians and 9% (1/11) of reptiles collected were endemic or restricted-range species. These elevated values may in part reflect patchy regional sampling efforts, which until recently have been poor in neighboring Lao PDR. Specimens collected included both northern (Ophryophryne microstoma, Paa spp.) and southern (Ophryophryne poilani, Rana milleti) Vietnamese elements, along with a number of widespread species (Leptolalax pelodytoides, Megophrys lateralis, all snake species). Range extensions were recorded for the megophryid frog Leptolalax tuberosus, the ranid frogs Amolops spinapectoralis and Rana attigua, the racophorid frog Rhacophorus exechopygus, and the anguid lizard Ophisaurus sokolovi (Bain & Nguyen, 2002a-d, in press). All five are restricted-range species and were previously known only from the Kon Tum Plateau in Gia Lai Province. Additionally, four species complexes were identified in the amphibian collections: Limnonectes blythii, Limnonectes kuhlii, Rana livida, and Polypedates leucomystax. These specimens may represent additional undescribed biodiversity at the site.

Despite these indications of high local biodiversity and endemism at Ngoc Linh, it is clear from literature and species accumulation curves that the current survey sampled a small sub-set of the actual herpetofauna in the region. Additionally, sampling was restricted to an elevation band of low- and mid-montane broad-leaved evergreen forest (the majority of specimens were collected at 850-1100m). Further sampling in both lowland and high montane forests and in additional microhabitats at Ngoc Linh would increase the number and diversity of species recorded.

Conclusions
The herpetofauna collections from Ngoc Linh are noteworthy for the high levels of species diversity and endemism recorded during a limited sampling period in one broad elevation zone. Highlights from the collections include high endemism rates for amphibians and reptiles, and species representing one rhacophorid and three ranid species complexes. New Quang Nam provincial records were recorded for four frog (Leptolalax tuberosus, Amolops spinapectoralis, Rana attigua, Racophorus exechopygus) and one lizard (Ophisaurus sokolovi) species. Seven of the 34 species collected remain unidentified (1 gecko, 6 amphibians); it is not clear how many of these are previously undescribed. We are currently working on identifications and possible new species descriptions for these taxa. A lacertid specimen collected at Ngoc Linh has been designated a paratype for the newly described grass lizard Takydromus hani (Chou, Nguyen & Pauwells, 2001) and is currently housed at the Institute for Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Species with affinities to northern Vietnam and southern China and to southern Vietnam were collected during the survey. This overlap of northern sub-tropical and southern tropical faunas at mid-elevations parallels forest species diversity at Ngoc Linh. It is also consistent with the hypothesis that Vietnamese species diversity patterns are structured in part by the overlap of Sino-Himalayan and Indo-Malayan biogeographic zones. This apparent overlap of biota coupled with a relatively high number of endemic and restricted-range species indicates that Ngoc Linh should be considered a region of high amphibian and reptile biodiversity and subsequent conservation value. Further sampling, both locally and in adjacent regions of Vietnam and Lao PDR, will help refine this assessment.

Literature Cited - Herpetology Research
Bain, R.H., and Nguyen Quang Truong. 2002a. Geographic distribution. Rhacophorus exechopygus. Herpetological Review, 33:64.

Bain, R.H., and Nguyen Quang Truong. 2002b. Geographic distribution. Rana attigua. Herpetological Review, 33:63.

Bain, R.H., and Nguyen Quang Truong. 2002c. Geographic distribution. Amolops spinapectoralis. Herpetological Review, 33:61.

Bain, R.H., and Nguyen Quang Truong. 2002d. Geographic distribution. Ophisaurus sokolovi. Herpetological Review, 33:66.

Bain, R.H., and Nguyen Quang Truong. In press. Geographic distribution. Leptolalax tuberosus. Herpetological Review.

Chou, W.-H., Nguyen Quang Truong, and O.S.G. Pauwells. 2001. A new species of Takydromus (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from Vietnam. Herpetologica, 57:497-508.

 

Amphibians and Reptiles Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey

Locality: Ngoc Linh Range, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
 
Species Common Name Status
(see citations 1-2)
Distribution
(see citations 3-34)
CLASS: REPTILIA      
Order: Sauria      
Family: Agamidae      
Acanthosaura capra Green Pricklenape Lizard   SE Asia
Acanthosaura crucigera Mountain Pricklenape Lizard   Indochina to Malay Peninsula
Calotes emma Thailand Bloodsucker Lizard   SE Asia
       
Family: Gekkonidae      
Cyrtodactylus sp. Gecko species   E, SE Asia, Indo-Australian Archipelago
       
Family: Lacertidae      
Takydromus hani     Known Range Restricted: C Vietnam
       
Family: Anguidae      
Ophisaurus sokolovi Sokolov's Glass Lizard   Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
       
Order: Serpentes      
Family: Colubridae      
Amphiesma modesta Modest Keelback Snake   Himalaya, SE Asia
Calamaria pavimentata Collared Reed Snake   Assam India, S China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Japan
Dendrelaphis pictus Gmeli's Bronzeback Snake   E, SE Asia
Pareas carinatus Keeled Slug Snake   S China, Indochina
Xenochrophis triangulara Asiatic Water Snake   Indochina, Indonesia
       
Family: Viperidae      
Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri Chinese Green Tree Viper   Himalaya, China, N Indochina
       
CLASS: AMPHIBIA      
Order: Anura      
Family: Bufonidae      
Bufo galeatus Gamboja Toad   Indochina
       
Family: Megophryidae      
Leptobrachium sp. Spadefoot Toad species   India to Sunda Shelf, S China
Leptolalax pelodytoides Thao Asian Toad   Hong Kong, S China, Myanmar, Indochina
Leptolalax tuberosus     Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
Megophrys lateralis Anderson's Spadefoot Toad   Bangladesh, NE Myanmar, China, Vietnam
Ophryophryne microstoma Asian Mountain Toad   S China, N Vietnam
Ophryophryne poilani Dong-Tam-Ve Mountain Toad   Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
       
Family: Microhylidae      
Microhyla annamensis Annam Rice Frog   Thailand, S Vietnam
Microhyla heymonsi Taiwan Rice Frog   pan-SE Asian distribution
Microhyla sp. Rice Frog species   Unknown
       
Family: Ranidae      
Amolops spinapectoralis Spiny Breasted Sucker Frog   Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
Limnonectes blythii complex Blyth's Wart Frog   Myanmar to Indonesia
Limnonectes kuhlii complex Kuhl's Frog   pan-SE Asian distribution
Paa sp. 1 Paa Frog species 1   Himalaya, S China, N Indochina
Paa sp. 2 Paa Frog species 2   Himalaya, S China, N Indochina
Rana attigua     Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
Rana livida complex Green Cascade Frog   India, China, Indochina
Rana livida complex Green Cascade Frog   India, China, Indochina
Rana milleti Dalat Frog   Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
       
Family: Rhacophoridae      
Polypedates leucomystax complex Java Whipping Frog   Himalaya, S China, Indochina, Indo-Malay Archipelago
Rhacophorus annamensis Annam Flying Frog   Known Range Restricted: Vietnam
Rhacophorus appendiculatus Philippine Flying Frog   Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines
Rhacophorus calcaneus Vietnam Flying Frog   Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam
Rhacophorus exechopygus Spiny-Bottomed Flying Frog   Known Range Restricted: S Vietnam

 

Literature Cited - Amphibians and Reptiles Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey
1. Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. "2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species." International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

2. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). 2001. "Appendices I, II and III." Retrieved June 27, 2001 from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: http://www.cites.org/

3. Bourret, R. 1936. Les Serpents de l'Indochine, Vols. 1 & 2. Libraire pour les Sciences Naturelles, Paris.

4. Bourret, R. 1942. Les Batraciens de l'Indochine. Gouvernment général de l'Indochine, Hanoi.

5. Campden-Main, S.M. 1970. A Field Guide to the Snakes of South Vietnam. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

6. Cox, M.J., P.P. van Dijk, J. Nabhitabhata, and K. Thirakupt. 1999. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, FL.

7. Darevsky, I.S. 1999. The herpetofauna of some offshore islands of Vietnam, as related to that of the adjacent mainland. In: Ota, H. (ed.), Tropical Island Herpetofauna: Origin, Current Diversity, and Conservation, pp. 27-42. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

8. Fei, L. (ed.). 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.

9. Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Association of Systematic Collections and Allen Press, Lawrence, KA.

10. Frost, D.R. 2000. "Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference, v. 2.20" (http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/). American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY.

11. Inger, R.F. 1966. The systematics and zoogeography of the amphibia of Borneo. Fieldiana: Zoology, 52:188-191, 364.

12. Inger, R. F. 1999. Distribution of amphibians of southern Asia and adjacent islands. In: Duellman, W.E. (ed.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective, pp. 445-482. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

13. Inger, R.F., N. Orlov, and I. Darevsky. 1999. Frogs of Vietnam: a report on new collections. Fieldiana: Zoology, New Series, 92:iii-iv, 1-46.

14. Iverson, J.B. 1992. A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. Private Printing, Richmond, IN.

15. Lathrop, A., R.W. Murphy, N. Orlov, and Ho Thu Chuc. 1998. Two new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from northern Vietnam. Amphibia-Reptilia, 19:253-267.

16. Lathrop, A., R.W. Murphy, N. Orlov, and Ho Thu Chuc. 1998. Two new species of Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam with a redescription of Leptobrachium chapaense. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 5:51-60.

17. Liu, C.-C., and S.-Q. Hu (as S.-C. Hu). 1961. Chinese Tailless Amphibians. Science Press, Peking.

18. Manthey, U., and W. Grossman. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier-Verlag, Berlin.

19. Nussbaum, R.A., Jr., E.D. Brodie, and Y. Datong. 1995. A taxonomic review of Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson (Amphibia: Caudata: Salmandridae). Herpetologica, 51:257-268.

20. Orlov, N.L., R.W. Murphy, and T.J. Papenfuss. 2000. List of snakes of Tam-Dao Mountain Ridge (Tonkin, Vietnam). Russian Journal of Herpetology, 7:69-80.

21. Orlov, N., A. Lathrop, R.W. Murphy, and Ho Thu Cuc. 2001. Frogs of the family Rhacophoridae (Anura: Amphibia) in the Northern Hoang Lien Mountains (Mount Fan Si Pan, Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province), Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 8:17-44.

22. Ota, H., M.W. Lau, T. Weidenhöfer, Y. Yasukawa, and A. Bogadek. 1995. Taxonomic review of the geckos allied to Gekko chinensis Gray 1842 (Gekkonidae Reptilia) from China and Vietnam. Tropical Zoology, 8:181-196.

23. Pope, C.H. 1935. Reptiles of China: Turtles, Crocodilians, Snakes, Lizards. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY.

24. Smith, M.A. 1931. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 1: Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis, London.

25. Smith, M.A. 1935. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 2: Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London.

26. Smith, M.A. 1945. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 3: Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London.

27. Taylor, E.H. 1962. The amphibian fauna of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 43:265-599, errata.

28. Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 44:687-1077.

29. Taylor, E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 55:610-1096.

30. Welch, K.R.G. 1994. Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Vol. 1: Venomous Snakes. Longdunn Press, Bristol.

31. Welch, K.R.G. 1994. Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Vol. 2: Boas, Pythons, Shield-tails, and Worm Snakes. Longdunn Press, Bristol.

32. Yang, D. 1991. Phylogenetic systematics of the Amolops group of ranid frogs of Southeastern Asia and the Greater Sunda Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology, New Series, 63:1-42.

33. Yang, D.-T., S. Li, W. Liu, and S. Lu (eds.). 1991. Amphibian-Fauna of Yunnan. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.

34. Zhao, E.-M., and K. Adler (eds.). 1993. Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, MO.

 

Ichthyology Research

Survey Team
The 1999 ichthyology survey team members were Radford Arrindell and Dr. Melanie L.J. Stiassny from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Le Hung Anh and Dr. Nguyen Xuan Huan from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Freshwater fishes were collected in the spring of 1999 from four rivers in the Tra My District, Quang Nam Province (15° 14'-18' N; 108° 05-07' E): Tranh, Nuoc Ta, Loo and Nam Nin. Collection sites along the rivers included isolated pools, backwaters and small side streams with varied rock, gravel, sand and mud bottoms. Specimens were also purchased at five locations in Quang Nam Province: Tra My Market in Tra My District; Tam Ky Market in Tam Ky District; and Dong Da Hotel, Han River Market and Da Nang Market in Da Nang City.

Methods
A combination of dip nets, seine nets and overnight gill nets were employed at the collecting stations. Local Vietnamese assisting with the collections also used cast nets and hook-and-line. Rotenone was used at approximately one-third of the sites. Electro-shocking was not employed.
At each collection site a number of variables were recorded, including time, collection methods, water temperature and depth, and latitude and longitude, and brief site descriptions were noted. Photographs were taken of some specimens and worksites.

Preliminary Results
The 1999 freshwater ichthyology surveys in Quang Nam Province collected 947 specimens representing 97 taxa in 35 families from rivers in the Ngoc Linh Mountain range, and from markets in Tra My and Tam Ky Districts and Da Nang City. Captured and purchased fishes were fixed in 10% formalin and subsequently preserved in 75% ethanol. These specimens are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Ichthyology at the AMNH. Approximately half will be returned to Vietnam after identifications and descriptions are completed.
Specimens in these collections are currently identified to family, and analyses are ongoing. Preliminary results indicate that the majority of the taxa are in the Cyprinidae (minnow) family, consistent with previous survey work in Indochina and Southeast Asia. The freshwater fish fauna of Vietnam remains both under-surveyed and under-described, and identifications are complicated by the independent development of ichthyology in the region (Lundberg, et al., 2000). Additional results from these expeditions will be added as soon as they become available.

Literature Cited - Ichthyology Research
Lundberg, J.G., Kottelat, M., Smith, G.R., Stiassny, M.L.J., and Gill, A.C. 2000. So many fishes, so little time: an overview of recent ichthyological discovery in continental waters. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 87: 26-62.

 

Fishes Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey

Locality Key
1: Nuoc Ta River, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
2: Loo Stream, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
3: Nam Nin River, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
4: Tranh River, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
5: Unknown drainage, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
6: Purchased from local fishermen in Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
7: Purchased at Tra My Market, Tra My District Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
8: Purchased at Tam Ky Market, Tam Ky Town, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
9: Purchased at Dong Da Hotel, Da Nang City, Vietnam
10: Purchased at Han River Market, Da Nang City, Vietnam
11: Purchased at Da Nang Market, Da Nang City, Vietnam
12: Not available
Species Common Name Locality Natural Distribution
(see citation 1)
FAMILY: ANGUILLIDAE Freshwater Eels    
Anguilla marmorata Giant Mottled Eel 8 Indo-Pacific
       
FAMILY: CONGRIDAE Conger and Garden Eels    
Congresox sp.   3  
Muraenesox cinereus Daggertooth Pike Conger 11 Indo-West Pacific
       
FAMILY: MORINGUIDAE Worm or Spaghetti Eels    
Moringua spp.   10, 11  
       
FAMILY: MURAENIDAE Moray Eels    
Gymnothorax sp.   10  
       
FAMILY: CLUPEIDAE Herrings, Shads, Sardines, Menhadens    
Dussumieria elopsoides Slender Rainbow Sardine 11 Indo-Pacific
Herklotsichthys spp.   10, 12  
Konosirus punctatus Konoshiro Gizzard Shad 8 North-West Pacific coasts and rivers
       
FAMILY: ENGRAULIDAE Anchovies    
Encrasicholina heterobolus Shorthead Anchovy 12 Indo-Pacific
Encrasicholina punctifer Buccaneer Anchovy 12 Indo-Pacific
Stolephorus indicus Indian Anchovy 11 Indo-Pacific
Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg's Anchovy 11, 12 Indo-Pacific
       
FAMILY: NOTOPTERIDAE Featherbacks or Knifefishes    
Notopterus notopterus Bronze Featherback 8, 10 S, SE Asia
       
FAMILY: SYNODONTIDAE Lizardfishes    
Trachinocephalus myops Snakefish 11 Worldwide in tropical and warm temperate waters
       
FAMILY: BALITORIDAE River Loaches    
Homaloptera sp.   8  
Sewellia lineolata   1, 3, 4, 5 China, Vietnam, Cambodia
Sewellia cf. marmorata   3 Annam, Vietnam
Sewellia spp.   1, 3, 4  
       
FAMILY: COBITIDAE Loaches    
Acanthopsoides gracilentus   8 Mekong and Xe Bangfai basins (Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia)
Gobiobotia sp.   8  
Misgurnus spp.   11, 12  
Schistura spp.   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12  
Cobitidae sp.   5  
       
FAMILY: CYPRINIDAE Minnows or Carps    
Acrossocheilus sp.   1  
Amblyrhynchichthys sp.   3  
Barbodes spp.   1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12  
Carassius auratus Goldfish 7, 8 Myanmar, China, Japan; introduced worldwide
Cirrhinus spp.   1, 4, 12  
Crossocheilus sp.   4  
Cyprinus carpio Common Carp 7, 8 Eurasia
Garra cf. fuliginosa   1, 4, 8, 12 Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam
Hemiculter sp.   7  
Hypsibarbus sp.   8  
Lissochilus sp.   1  
Luciocyprinus sp.   1  
Microphysogobio spp.   1, 3, 4  
Mystacoleucus cf. atridorsalis   4 Mekong and Xe Bangfai basins (Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia)
Mystacoleucus cf. marginatus   8 China, SE Asia, Indo-Malay Archipelago
Mystacoleucus spp.   3, 4, 5, 6, 8  
Onychostoma spp.   1, 3, 4, 8  
Opsariichthys spp.   1, 4, 5, 6, 8  
Osteochilus spp.   1  
Poropuntius sp.   1  
Pseudohemiculter spp.   4, 8  
Puntius spp.   1, 4, 5, 8  
Rasbora spp.   1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12  
Rasborichthys helfrichii   10 Sumatra and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia)
Schismatorhynchus sp.   4  
Systomus sp.   2  
Tor cf. sinensis   3 Mekong basin (Thailand, China, Lao PDR)
Tor spp.   1, 3, 4, 8, 12  
Cyprinidae spp.   1  
       
FAMILY: BAGRIDAE Bagrid Catfishes    
Hemibagrus spp.   1  
Bagridae spp.   8, 9, 10, 11  
       
FAMILY: CLARIIDAE Airbreathing Catfishes    
Clarias batrachus Walking Catfish 8 S, SE Asia, China, Indo-Malay Archipelago
Clarias gariepinus North African Catfish 10 Africa, the Levant; introduced Europe, Africa, Asia
Clarias macrocephalus   10 Thailand, Indochina, Phillipines; introduced China, Malaysia, Guam
Clarias sp.   11  
       
FAMILY: SILURIDAE Sheatfishes    
Pterocryptis cochinchinensis   1, 3, 4 SE Asia, E China
Pterocryptis cucphuongensis   1, 3, 4, 5 Vietnam
Silurus asotus Amur Catfish 8 SE Asia
       
FAMILY: SISORIDAE Sisorid Catfishes    
Glyptosternon cf. hainanensis   1  
Glyptothorax sp.   12  
       
FAMILY: BELONIDAE Needlefishes    
Strongylura incisa Reef Needlefish 11 Indo-Pacific
       
FAMILY: HEMIRAMPHIDAE Halfbeaks    
Hyporhamphus quoyi Quoy's Garfish 10, 11 Indo-West Pacific
       
FAMILY: POECILIIDAE Poeciliids    
Poecilia reticulata Guppy 5 Carribean; introduced worldwide
       
FAMILY: ATHERINIDAE Silversides    
Hypoatherina sp.   11  
       
FAMILY: CHANNIDAE Snakeheads    
Channa gachua   1, 2, 3, 4, 5 S, SE Asia, China, Indo-Malay Archipelago
Channa striata Snakehead Murrel 10, 11 S, SE Asia, China, Indo-Malay Archipelago
Channa sp.   4  
       
FAMILY: SYNBRANCHIDAE Swamp-eels    
Synbranchus bengalensis Onegilled Eel 10 S, SE Asia, China, Indo-Malay Archipelago
       
FAMILY: PLATYCEPHALIDAE Flatheads    
Platycephalus spp.   10, 11  
       
FAMILY: AMBASSIDAE Asiatic Glassfishes    
Ambassis vachellii Vachelli's Glass Perchlet 10, 12 Indo-West Pacific
Ambassis spp.   10, 11  
       
FAMILY: TERAPONTIDAE Grunters or Tigerfishes    
Terapon sp.   10  
       
FAMILY: SILLAGINIDAE Smelt-Whitings    
Sillago sp.   10  
       
FAMILY: LEIOGNATHIDAE Slimys, Slipmouths, or Ponyfishes    
Leiognathus sp.   11  
       
FAMILY: GERREIDAE Mojaras    
Gerres filamentosus Whipfin Silverbiddy 10 Indo-Pacific
Gerres sp.   12  
       
FAMILY: CICHLIDAE Cichlids    
Oreochromis mossambicus Mozambique Tilapia 11 Southern Africa; introduced worldwide
       
FAMILY: MUGILIDAE Mullets    
Valamugil perusii   11 Western Central Pacific (Solomon Islands)
Valamugil seheli Bluespot Mullet 7 Indo-Pacific
       
FAMILY: ELEOTRIDAE Sleepers    
Butis butis Duckbill Sleeper 7, 9 Indo-West Pacific
Prionobutis sp.   11  
Eleotridae sp.   11  
       
FAMILY: GOBIIDAE Gobies    
Glossogobius giuris Tank Goby 7, 10, 11 Africa through Oceania
Glossogobius spp.   9, 11  
Oligolepis cf. acutipennis Sharptail Goby (cf.) 11 Indo-West Pacific
Oligolepis spp.   7, 11  
Oxyurichthys tentacularis   10, 11 Indo-West Pacific
Rhinogobius ocellatus   1, 4 Mekong, Xe Bangfai and Nam Theun basins (Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia)
Rhinogobius spp.   1, 3, 4, 8  
Taenioides cirratus   11  
       
FAMILY: SIGANIDAE Rabbitfishes    
Siganus sp.   10  
       
FAMILY: ANABANTIDAE Climbing Gouramies    
Anabas testudineus Climbing Perch 8, 10 S, SE Asia, China, Indo-Malay Archipelago
       
FAMILY: MASTACEMBELIDAE Spiny Eels    
Mastacembelus armatus Tiretrack Eel 1, 3, 4, 8 S, SE Asia, S China, Indo-Malay Archipelago
       
FAMILY: TETRAODONTIDAE Puffers    
Tetraodontidae spp.   10, 11  

 

Literature Cited - Fishes Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey
1. FishBase (compiler). 2001. "FishBase: A Global Information System on Fishes." Retrieved October 5, 2001 from FishBase: http://www.fishbase.org/home.htm

 

Mammalogy Research (Large Mammal Survey)

Survey Team
The 1999 mammalogy survey team members were Robert J. Timmins from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Trinh Viet Cuong from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
The survey was conducted April 22-May 24, 1999 at the Huong Son Forest, Huong Son District, Ha Tinh Province, located in the Northern Truong Son Mountains along the international border with Lao PDR (18° 15'-37' N; 105° 07'-17' E). Huong Son Forest is part of a trans-national complex of evergreen forests in the region, contiguous to the south with Vu Quang Nature Reserve (NR) in Vietnam, and to the west with Nakai-Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA) in Lao PDR. This work was part of a larger field survey assessing the conservation value of the Huong Son Forest and is included in the summary report along with additional results (Timmins & Trinh, 2001).

The Huong Son Forest contains the headwaters of four rivers (Rao An, Nam Sot, Nam Mac and Song Con) and the primary vegetation along the valley bottoms and slopes is broad-leaved evergreen forest. Observations were made at elevations up to 1250m in four habitats: lowland valleys, lower slopes (150-500m), higher slopes (500-850m) and forests above 850m. Five main lowland valleys were visited: Rao An, Nga Doi, Nam Mac, Khe Tre and Song Con. The habitat in these areas was mostly degraded flat valley forest with tall secondary forest growth. In some areas (e.g., Rao An) the forest structure was fair to good, with trees of 20-30cm dbh present. Lower slope (150-500m) habitat quality varied with accessibility. At the upper ends of the valleys forest structure was good, with many mid-sized trees (20-35cm dbh), a closed canopy and healthy sapling growth; lower down the canopy was broken with fewer mid-sized trees, little evidence of regeneration, and many vines and bamboo. Higher up the slopes (500-850m) the forest was in good condition with only the largest trees removed. Large trees (>50cm dbh) were frequent and large fan-leafed ferns and cycads were characteristic of some areas. Habitat above 850m was surveyed only in the Rao An Tren Valley. The forests here were generally shorter and more open, with few large trees and some clumps of mid-sized bamboo. Ridges in this area were characterized by small bamboo species, ferns, rattan, and considerable herb ground cover.

Methods
The methods used to survey mammals in the Huong Son Forest were: diurnal searches, nocturnal spotlighting, camera-trapping and local interviews. Throughout the survey an emphasis was placed on recording large mammals and 'key species' considered important in national, regional and global conservation contexts. Observations of identifiable small mammals were also recorded and included in the results. Total survey effort was 29 person-days across all habitats and locations.

The primary method employed was opportunistic daytime searching and observation. Most observations were made while walking quietly along trails and during periods of static watching. Concentrated searches for mammal signs were conducted in the forest and along stretches of the Rao An and Nam Mac rivers. Night-time searches for nocturnal mammals were carried out at Rao An, Nga Doi and Nam Mac using headlamps (initial contact) and spotlights (identification). Seven camera traps were positioned in areas to maximize the likelihood of large mammal records. The receiver and transmitter were set 4-6m apart with the beam 15-30cm above ground and the camera set to incorporate this area up to a height of 50cm (where possible). Minimal emphasis was placed on interviews with local people and a systematic survey of villages and wildlife exploitation was not made. Efforts focused on locating remains in villages and contacting local wildlife dealers.

Results
The mammal survey team positively identified a total of twenty-two species in twelve families and seven orders from the Huong Son Forest. Approximately one-third (8/22) of these are considered either Globally Threatened or Near Threatened: Sunda Pangolin Manis javanica, Bear Macaque Macaca arctoides, Douc Langur Pygathrix nemaeus, White-cheeked/Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbon Hylobates leucogenys/gabriellae, Sun Bear Ursus malayanus, Owston's Civet Hemigalus owstoni, Saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis, Southern Serow Naemorhedus sumatraensis and East Asian Porcupine Hystrix brachyura (after Hilton-Taylor, 2000). In addition, six species recorded have ranges limited to a subset of the Southern China and Indochina region: P. nemaeus, H. owstoni, Large-antlered Muntjac Muntiacus vuquangensis, P. nghetinhensis, Inornate Squirrel Callosciurus inornatus, and Annamite Striped Rabbit Nesolagus timminsi.

The large mammal fauna recorded at Huong Son is typical of the lowland and premontane broad-leaved evergreen habitats sampled and of known regional distribution patterns. The results also reinforce previously known or suspected faunal differences between the eastern and western slopes of the Truong Son Mountains. Two species recorded during the survey, H. owstoni and P. nghetinhensis, both have widespread records from Vietnam (east slope) but are only sporadically known from Lao PDR (west slope). The Truong Son Mountains are considered a center for regionally endemic flora and fauna, and there is evidence for this from the current survey. Among the species recorded was N. timminsi, a recently described lagomorph apparently restricted to the Truong Son Mountains along the Lao PDR-Vietnam border (Averianov, et al., 2000, Surridge, et al., 1989).

However, the large mammal fauna is clearly a sub-set of what would be expected from intact forests in this region. Most large mammal species were not common in their respective habitats, and there were no records of Bos, Elaphas, big cats and large deer and only limited signs, sightings or other evidence of diurnal primates, small carnivores and Muntiacus. This is in contrast with results from small mammal (1998/99) and ornithological (1999) surveys of Huong Son which found most species to be common in their respective habitats, with the exception of some larger quarry birds. In addition, the extensive small mammal survey found no evidence of human commensal species, indicating that the Huong Son Forest ecosystem is currently healthy and relatively undisturbed by human activities.

It probable that local hunting pressure is depressing the abundance of large mammals in the Huong Son. Snare lines were common throughout the forest. Trophies and recently killed small and large mammals were seen in the possession of villagers and local wildlife dealers. Additionally, there seems to be little evidence of buffering by mammal populations in adjacent Lao PDR forests as occurs elsewhere in this region of Vietnam. These two factors may be responsible for the reduced mammal populations, particularly those susceptible to hunting pressure. For example, only three out of seven diurnal primate species expected to occupy these habitats were observed and gibbon calling densities were extremely low given the extensive areas of good quality habitat still present.

Conclusions
Noteworthy findings from the 1999 survey at Huong Son Forest include evidence for a large mammal fauna characteristic of the eastern slopes of the Truong Son Mountains. Eight Globally Threatened and Near Threatened species were identified and six species with limited ranges recorded, including the probable regional endemics Owston's Civet Hemigalus owstoni, Saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis and the recently described Annamite Striped Rabbit Nesolagus timminsi. The survey also found direct evidence that the abundance of these large mammals is currently depressed by intensive local hunting pressure.

Despite evidence of exploitation resulting in reduced population sizes and the absence of some expected species, Huong Son has potentially high conservation value in national, regional and global contexts. The forest is located in the northern section of the Truong Son Mountains, a low-lying range of hills and mountains along the Vietnam-Lao PDR border notable for the high species richness and endemic biota which the current study recorded. Additionally, Huong Son is part of a contiguously forested habitat block and there is evidence that the overall ecosystem is relatively healthy, with abundant bird and small mammal species and little evidence of commensal fauna. The combination of regional species diversity, the presence of threatened species and a relatively healthy and intact ecosystem confer high conservation value on this forest. Adding Huong Son to the regional network of protected areas would conserve biodiversity, increase habitat continuity and buffer wildlife exploitation throughout the region.

Literature Cited - Mammalogy Research (Large Mammal Survey)
Averianov, A. O., A. V. Abramov, and A. N. Tikhonov. 2000. A new species of Nesolagus (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) from Vietnam with osteological description. Contributions from the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, 3:1-22.

Hilton-Taylor, C (compiler). 2000. "2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species." International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland and Cambridge.

Surridge, A. K., R. J. Timmins, G. M. Hewitt, and D. J. Bell. 1999. Striped rabbits in Southeast Asia. Nature, 400:726.

Timmins, R.J., and Trinh Viet Cuong. 2001. "An Assessment of the Conservation Importance of the Huong Son (Annamite) Forest, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, Based on the Results of a Field Survey for Large Mammals and Birds." Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
 

Mammals Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey

Locality: Huong Son Forest, Huong Son District, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam
         
Species Common Name Status
(see citation 1)
Distribution
(see citation 2)
Comments
         
ORDER: PHOLIDOTA        
Family: Manidae        
Manis javanica Sunda Pangolin Near Threatened S Myanmar, Thailand, S Lao PDR, C,S Vietnam, Malay Archipelago Photo-trapped. Species still relatively widespread although heavily exploited.
         
ORDER: SCANDENTIA        
Family: Tupaiidae        
Subfamily: Tupaiinae        
Tupaia belangeri Northern Tree Shrew   S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Peninsula  
         
ORDER: PRIMATES        
Family: Cercopithecidae        
Subfamily: Cercopithecinae        
Macaca arctoides Bear Macaque Vulnerable Assam, S China, E Myanmar, W Thailand, N Lao PDR, N Vietnam Sighted and photo-trapped. Partially terrestrial species still likely widespread in the northern Truong Son Mountains (Lao PDR, Vietnam).
Subfamily: Colobinae        
Pygathrix nemaeus Douc Langur Endangered S Lao PDR, C,S Vietnam, NE Cambodia Sighted. All groups apparently red-shanked subspecies (P. n. nemaeus). Limited range species.
Family: Hylobatidae        
Hylobates leucogenys / gabriellae White-cheeked / Yellow-cheeked [All Hylobates spp. in Vietnam are on the IUCN Red List (2000).] S China, Lao PDR, Vietnam Vocalizations heard. Densities low despite habitat in good condition.
         
ORDER: CARNIVORA        
Family: Ursidae        
Ursus malayanus Sun Bear Data Deficient Assam, SW China, Myanmar, China, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Density low, similar to other recent Lao PDR, Vietnam surveys. Heavily exploited. Status and ecology of this species poorly known.
Ursus sp. Bear species   Himalaya, S China, Indochina, Malay Archipelago  
Family: Viverridae        
Paguma larvata Masked Palm Civet   Himalaya, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Species not confirmed to be currently present in the Huong Son Forest.
Hemigalus owstoni Owston's Civet Vulnerable S China, N Lao PDR, N Vietnam Photo-trapped. Likely locally common on eastern Truong Son Mountain slopes. Limited range species.
Family: Herpestidae        
Herpestes urva Crab-eating Mongoose   E Nepal, Bangladesh, Assam, S,E China, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Malay Peninsula  
Family: Felidae        
Prionailurus bengalensis Leopard Cat   Himalaya, India, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago  
         
ORDER: ARTIODACTYLA        
Family: Suidae        
Sus sp. Wild Pig species   E, SE Asia Densities low. Difficulties associated with differentiating S. scrofa and S. bucculentus in the field prevent further identification.
Family: Cervidae        
Cervus unicolor Sambar   India, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Species not confirmed to be currently present in the Huong Son Forest. Reports and old trophy frontlets seen. Species scarce or absent in most of Indochina.
Muntiacus muntjak Red Muntjac   India, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago  
Muntiacus vuquangensis Large-antlered Muntjac   Unknown; possibly restricted to Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia Species not confirmed to be currently present in the Huong Son Forest. Trophy frontlets seen. Species likely scarce at Huong Son. Still numerous in areas of Lao PDR, Vietnam. Limited range species.
Muntiacus sp. Muntjac species   E, SE Asia  
Family: Bovidae        
Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Saola Endangered Unknown; possibly restricted to Lao PDR, Vietnam Species not confirmed to be currently present in the Huong Son Forest Reported encounter rates low, single trophy frontlet seen Present at extremely low densities. This species has a limited range and is highly endangered.
Naemorhedus sumatraensis Southern Serow Vulnerable Himalaya, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Species not confirmed to be currently present in the Huong Son Forest. Recent trophy frontlets and field signs seen. Species apparently widespread in Indochina.
         
ORDER: RODENTIA        
Family: Sciuridae        
Subfamily: Ratufinae        
Ratufa bicolor Black Giant Squirrel   E Nepal, Assam, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Densities below natural levels. Status often correlates closely with that of diurnal primates.
Subfamily: Callosciurinae        
Callosciurus erythraeus Pallas's Squirrel   Assam, S,E China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Peninsula  
Callosciurus inornatus Inornate Squirrel   S China, N Lao PDR, N Vietnam Relatively numerous throughout the study area. Limited range species
Tamiops rodolphii Cambodian Striped Squirrel   E Thailand, S Lao PDR, C,S Vietnam, Cambodia  
Dremomys rufigensis Red-cheeked Squirrel   Assam, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Peninsula  
Family: Hystricidae        
Hystrix brachyura East Asian Porcupine Vulnerable E Nepal, Bangladesh, Assam, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Spines seen. Species remains widespread in Lao PDR and probably Vietnam.
Atherurus macrourus Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine   Assam, S China, N Myanmar, N Thailand, N Lao PDR, N Vietnam, Malay Archipelago  
         
ORDER: LAGOMORPHA        
Family: Leporidae        
Nesolagus timminsi Annamite Striped Rabbit   Unknown; possibly restricted to Lao PDR, Vietnam Partial skeleton found in a snare. Recently described species now known from several locations in Lao PDR, Vietnam Limited range species.

 

Literature Cited - Mammals Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey
1. Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. "2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species." International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

2. Corbet, G.B., and J.E. Hill. 1992. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

 

Ornithology Research

Survey Team
The 1999 ornithology survey team members were Dr. R. Terry Chesser, Ben F. King and Paul R. Sweet from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Dr. Le Dinh Thuy from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
The survey was conducted March 11-April 4, 1999, in the foothills of the Ngoc Linh Range, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province (15° 11' N, 108° 02' E), located on the Kon Tum plateau in Vietnam's central highlands. This field survey was part of a collaborative effort to assess the feasibility of establishing a Nature Reserve at Ngoc Linh (Quang Nam) contiguous with the existing Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province. Preliminary results from the CBC-AMNH/IEBR ornithology survey are included in "A feasibility study for the establishment of Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam" (Tordoff, Tran & Tran, 2000).

Collections and observations were made along an elevation transect of 200-1650m. Sampling was performed in various microhabitats at four altitudes: 200m, 920m, 1100m and 1450m. Up to approximately 900m the habitat was mostly degraded cultivated land with some forest persisting in ravines and on steeper slopes. These remnants were low montane broadleaf evergreen forest with a diverse mixture of both Sino-Himalayan (Juglandaceae, Ulmaceae, Lauraceae) and Malesian (Myrtaceae, Sterculiaceae) species. At higher elevations this forest type intergraded with medium montane broadleaf evergreen forest, which became increasingly dominant above 1000m. The characteristic species were representative of Sino-Himalayan floral elements (Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae) with some conifer species mixed in, and the habitat typical of Vietnamese montane forests above 1000m.

Methods
Data were gathered through capture and direct observation. Specimens were collected using mist nets placed in microhabitats to maximize likelihood of capture, including ridge tops, gullies, slopes, forest gaps, and alongside and across streams. Direct observations were made in areas near mist net locations, and while walking into and out of the study site. Observational data was recorded daily and included both species identifications and estimated abundance.

Results
A total of 146 species in 40 families were identified during the 1999 ornithological survey. Fifty-six species in 18 families were captured and139 species in 40 families were recorded by direct observation. Additional data on age, sex, degree of sub-cutaneous fat, molt, soft part colors, weight and breeding status were recorded. Specimens are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Ornithology at the AMNH; approximately half will be repatriated to the IEBR in Hanoi after identifications and descriptions are completed.

The 1999 ornithology survey recorded a rich avifauna with marked Sino-Himalayan affinities and a relatively high degree of localized biodiversity. The study site at Ngoc Linh is part of the Kon Tum Plateau Endemic Bird Area (EBA), and three of the seven restricted-range species known from this region were identified during the survey: Crested Argus Rheinardia ocellata, Yellow-billed Nuthatch Sitta solangiae and Black-hooded Laughingthrush Garrulax milleti. All three species are classified as either Globally Threatened (R. ocellata) or Near Threatened (S. solangiae, G. milleti) (after Stattersfield, Capper, and Dutson, 2000). Four species with ranges restricted to Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia (east of the Mekong) and Southern China were also recorded: Red-vented Barbet Megalaima lagrandieri, Blue-rumped Pitta Pitta soror, White-winged Magpie Urocissa whiteheadi and Indochinese Green Magpie Cissa hypoleuca (after Robson, 2000).

Three other survey results suggest that the Ngoc Linh study site is an area of high local biodiversity. First, range extensions were recorded for a number of species. In general these were southward extensions of montane species known from the Truong Son Range and the highlands of northern Vietnam. Second, there is good evidence for differences in altitude distributions among closely related passerines which increases local species number (e.g., Black-browed Fulvetta Alcippe grotei and Mountain Fulvetta A. peracensis). Finally, information on migratory and breeding behavior collected during the survey will further elucidate regional biodiversity patterns.
Despite these results, the species recorded represent only a subset of those expected to occur at Ngoc Linh. Additional sampling, especially at higher elevations in the high montane evergreen, mixed coniferous and elfin forests, would likely increase recorded biodiversity.

Conclusions
Noteworthy findings from the 1999 ornithology survey at Ngoc Linh include records of three restricted-range species and four regional endemics and high levels of local avian biodiversity. Taxa observed and collected represent a number of new range extensions and we are currently working on analyses of these results.
Bird surveys in the central highlands have historically focused on and around the Da Lat plateau to the south, and biodiversity of the Kon Tum plateau (including Ngoc Linh) remains relatively understudied. Birds recorded from the eastern slope of Ngoc Linh include groups with geographic ranges generally extending either north or south from central Vietnam as well as those with more widespread, pan-Southeast Asian distributions. This overlap of northern and southern taxa increases species' richness and parallels observed patterns of both amphibian and tree species' diversity recorded at the site. Additionally, the presence of regional endemics indicates that the ecosystem has a strong component of localized biodiversity.

Ngoc Linh's conservation value arises from high biodiversity associated with overlapping northern and southern faunas, the presence of local endemics, and records of three Globally Threatened (Rheinardia ocellata) or Near Threatened (Sitta solangiae, Garrulax milleti) species from the survey. Recently published descriptions of two new bird species from Ngoc Linh (Kon Tum) (Golden-winged Laughingthrush Garrulax ngoclinhensis and Black-crowned Barwing Actinodura sodangorum) suggest that regional biodiversity may be underdescribed. Expanding the Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve to included the northern slopes would protect this species-rich ecosystem and add to a contiguous trans-national chain of proposed protected areas.

Literature Cited - Ornithology Research
Robson, C. 2000. A Guide to the Birds of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stattersfield, A.J., D.R. Capper, and G.C.L. Dutson. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Tordoff, A.W., Tran Hieu Minh and Tran Quang Ngoc. 2000. "A Feasibility Study for the Establishment of Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam." BirdLife International Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.

 

Birds Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey

Locality: Ngoc Linh Range, Tra My District, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
       
Species Common Name Status
(see citation 1)
Distribution
(see citation 2)
       
FAMILY: PHASIANIDAE      
Arborophila rufogularis Rufous-throated Partridge    
Arborophila brunneopectus Bar-backed Partridge    
Lophura nycthemera annamensi Silver Pheasant    
Rheinardia ocellata Crested Argus Globally Threatened-Vulnerable Endemic to SE Asia
       
FAMILY: PICIDAE      
Picus vittatus Laced Woodpecker    
Blythipicus pyrrhotis Bay Woodpecker    
       
FAMILY: MEGALAIMIDAE      
Megalaima lagrandieri Red-vented Barbet   Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia
Megalaima franklinii Golden-throated Barbet    
       
FAMILY: TROGONIDAE      
Tribe: Harpactini      
Harpactes erythrocephalus Red-headed Trogon    
       
FAMILY: ALCEDINIDAE      
Alcedo atthis Common Kingfisher    
       
FAMILY: HALCYONIDAE      
Lacedo pulchella Banded Kingfisher    
Halcyon capensis Stork-billed Kingfisher    
Halcyon smyrnensis White-throated Kingfisher    
Halcyon pileata Black-capped Kingfisher    
       
FAMILY: MEROPIDAE      
Merops philippinus Blue-tailed Bee-eater    
       
FAMILY: CUCULIDAE      
Hierococcyx fugax Hodgson's Hawk Cuckoo    
Cuculus micropterus Indian Cuckoo    
Cuculus canorus Eurasian Cuckoo    
Cacomantis sonneratii Banded Bay Cuckoo    
Cacomantis merulinus Plaintive Cuckoo    
Chrysococcyx maculatus Asian Emerald Cuckoo    
Surniculus lugubris Drongo Cuckoo    
Eudynamys scolopacea Asian Koel    
Phaenicophaeus tristis Green-billed Malkoha    
       
FAMILY: PSITTACIDAE      
Loriculus vernalis Vernal Hanging Parrot    
Psittacula alexandri Red-breasted Parakeet    
       
FAMILY: CENTROPODIDAE      
Centropus sinensis Greater Coucal    
       
FAMILY: APODIDAE      
Hirundapus sp. Needletail sp.    
       
FAMILY: TYTONIDAE      
Phodilus badius Oriental Bay Owl    
       
FAMILY: STRIGIDAE      
Otus spilocephalus Mountain Scops Owl    
Otus bakkamoena Collared Scops Owl    
Strix leptogrammica Brown Wood Owl    
Glaucidium brodiei Collared Owlet    
       
FAMILY: EUROSTOPODIDAE      
Eurostopodus macrotis Great Eared Nightjar    
       
FAMILY: COLUMBIDAE      
Streptopelia chinensis Spotted Dove    
Macropygia unchall Barred Cuckoo Dove    
Ducula badia Mountain Imperial Pigeon    
       
FAMILY: SCOLOPACIDAE      
Subfamily: Tringinae      
Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper    
       
FAMILY: ACCIPITRIDAE      
Subfamily: Accipitrinae      
Pernis ptilorhyncus Oriental Honey Buzzard    
Spilornis cheela Crested Serpent Eagle    
Buteo buteo Common Buzzard    
       
FAMILY: ARDEIDAE      
Egretta garzetta Little Egret    
Casmerodius albus Great Egret    
Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret    
Ardeola bacchus Chinese Pond Heron    
Butorides striatus Little Heron    
       
FAMILY: PITTIDAE      
Pitta nipalensis Blue-naped Pitta    
Pitta soror Blue-rumped Pitta   Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, S China
       
FAMILY: EURYLAIMIDAE      
Subfamily: Eurylaiminae      
Psarisomus dalhousiae Long-tailed Broadbill    
Serilophus lunatus Silver-breasted Broadbill    
       
FAMILY: IRENIDAE      
Irena puella Asian Fairy Bluebird    
Chloropsis hardwickii Orange-bellied Leafbird    
       
FAMILY: CORVIDAE      
Subfamily: Corvinae      
Tribe: Corvini      
Urocissa whiteheadi White-winged Magpie   Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, S China
Cissa chinensis Common Green Magpie    
Cissa hypoleuca Indochinese Green Magpie   Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, S China
Crypsirina temia Racket-tailed Treepie   Endemic to SE Asia
Corvus macrorhynchos Large-billed Crow    
Tribe: Artamini      
Artamus fuscus Ashy Woodswallow    
Tribe: Orioloni      
Oriolus traillii Maroon Oriole    
Coracina polioptera Indochinese Cuckooshrike   Endemic to SE Asia
Pericrocotus solaris Grey-chinned Minivet    
Pericrocotus ethologus Long-tailed Minivet    
Pericrocotus flammeus Scarlet Minivet    
Hemipus picatus Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike    
Subfamily: Dicrurinae      
Tribe: Dicrurini      
Dicrurus macrocercus Black Drongo    
Dicrurus annectans Crow-billed Drongo    
Dicrurus aeneus Bronzed Drongo    
Dicrurus remifer Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo    
Dicrurus paradiseus Greater Racket-tailed Drongo    
Tribe: Monarchini      
Hypothymis azurea Black-naped Monarch    
Terpsiphone paradisi Asian Paradise-flycatcher    
       
FAMILY: MUSCICAPIDAE      
Subfamily: Turdinae      
Myophonus caeruleus Blue Whistling Thrush    
Zoothera dauma Scaly Thrush    
Zoothera marginata Dark-sided Thrush    
Subfamily: Muscicapinae      
Tribe: Muscicapini      
Muscicapa ferruginea Ferruginous Flycatcher    
Ficedula monileger White-gorgeted Flycatcher    
Cyanoptila cyanomelana Blue-and-white Flycatcher    
Niltava grandis Large Niltava    
Niltava macgrigoriae Small Niltava    
Niltava davidi Fujan Niltava    
Cyornis concretus White-tailed Flycatcher    
Cyornis unicolor Pale Blue Flycatcher    
Cyornis rubeculoides Blue-throated Flycatcher    
Culicicapa ceylonensis Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher    
Tribe: Saxicolini      
Luscinia cyane Siberian Blue Robin    
Copsychus saularis Oriental Magpie Robin    
Copsychus malabaricus White-rumped Shama    
Enicurus schistaceus Slaty-backed Forktail    
Enicurus leschenaulti White-crowned Forktail    
Cochoa viridis Green Cochoa    
Saxicola torquata Common Stonechat    
       
FAMILY: STURNIDAE      
Tribe: Sturnini      
Gracula religiosa Hill Myna    
       
FAMILY: SITTIDAE      
Subfamily: Sittinae      
Sitta solangiae Yellow-billed Nuthatch Globally Near Threatened Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, S China
       
FAMILY: PARIDAE      
Subfamily: Parinae      
Parus spilonotus Yellow-cheeked Tit    
Melanochlora sultanea Sultan Tit    
       
FAMILY: AEGITHALIDAE      
Aegithalos concinnus Black-throated Tit   Endemic to SE Asia
       
FAMILY: HIRUNDINIDAE      
Subfamily: Hirundininae      
Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow    
Hirundo smithii Wire-tailed Swallow    
Delichon dasypus Asian House Martin    
       
FAMILY: PYCNONOTIDAE      
Pycnonotus melanicterus Black-crested Bulbul    
Pycnonotus jocosus Red-whiskered Bulbul    
Alophoixus pallidus Puff-throated Bulbul    
Hypsipetes mcclellandii Mountain Bulbul    
       
FAMILY: CISTICOLIDAE      
Cisticola juncidis Zitting Cisticola    
Prinia flaviventris Yellow-bellied Prinia    
       
FAMILY: SYLVIIDAE      
Subfamily: Acrocephalinae      
Urosphena squameiceps Asian Stubtail    
Orthotomus sutorius Common Tailorbird    
Orthotomus atrogularis Dark-necked Tailorbird    
Phylloscopus inornatus Yellow-browed Warbler    
Seicercus poliogenys Grey-cheeked Warbler    
Seicercus castaniceps Chestnut-crowned Warbler    
Subfamily: Garrulacinae      
Garrulax leucolophus White-crested Laughingthrush    
Garrulax milleti Black-hooded Laughingthrush Globally Near Threatened Endemic to S Lao PDR, C, S Annam Vietnam
Garrulax chinensis Black-throated Laughingthrush    
Garrulax milnei Red-tailed Laughingthrush    
Subfamily: Sylviinae      
Tribe: Timaliini      
Pellorneum tickelli Buff-breasted Babbler    
Malacopteron cinereum Scaly-crowned Babbler    
Pomatorhinus hypoleucos Large Scimitar Babbler    
Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps Red-billed Scimitar Babbler    
Pomatorhinus ferruginosus Coral-billed Scimitar Babbler    
Napothera brevicaudata Eyebrowed Wren Babbler    
Stachyris chrysaea Golden Babbler    
Stachyris nigriceps Grey-throated Babbler    
Macronous gularis Striped Tit Babbler    
Pteruthius flaviscapis White-browed Shrike Babbler    
Pteruthius aenobarbus Chestnut-fronted Shrike Babbler    
Alcippe rufogularis Rufous-throated Fulvetta    
Alcippe poioicephala Brown-cheeked Fulvetta    
Alcippe grotei Black-browed Fulvetta   Endemic to Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Thailand
Alcippe peracensis Mountain Fulvetta   Endemic to SE Asia
Yuhina nigrimenta Black-chinned Yuhina    
Yuhina zantholeuca White-bellied Yuhina    
Paradoxornis gularis Grey-headed Parrotbill    
Paradoxornis nipalensis Black-throated Parrotbill    
       
FAMILY: NECTARINIIDAE      
Subfamily: Nectariniinae      
Tribe: Dicaeini      
Dicaeum concolor Plain Flowerpecker    
Dicaeum ignipectus Fire-breasted Flowerpecker    
Tribe: Nectariniini      
Anthreptes singalensis Ruby-cheeked Sunbird    
Nectarinia jugularis Olive-backed Sunbird    
Aethopyga gouldiae Mrs. Gould's Sunbird    
Aethopyga nipalensis Green-tailed Sunbird    
Aethopyga christinae Fork-tailed Sunbird    
Aethopyga saturata Black-throated Sunbird    
Aethopyga siparaja Crimson Sunbird    
Arachnothera longirostra Little Spiderhunter    
Arachnothera magna Streaked Spiderhunter    
       
FAMILY: PASSERIDAE      
Subfamily: Estrildinae      
Tribe: Estrildini      
Lonchura striata White-rumped Munia    

 

Literature Cited - Birds Recorded During the 1999 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey
1. Stattersfield, A.J., D.R. Capper, and G.C.L. Dutson. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

2. Robinson, C. 2000. A Guide to the Birds of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Myammar, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

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