Shortcut Navigation:

2000 Ha Giang

vn_hgmap

Biogeography & Conservation
In 2000, the joint Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History (CBC-AMNH), Institute for Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) and Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG) biotic inventory survey teams focused their primary collections at Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Ha Giang Province, in northeastern Vietnam. Additional sampling was carried out near the Hmong village of Khau Ria, at the base of Mt. Muong Cha in Ha Giang. The topography includes limestone plateaus and steep, uplifted karst outcroppings intermixed with granitic hills; Tay Con Linh (2616m) is the highest mountain in the area.

The biodiversity of northeastern Vietnam remains relatively undersampled despite strong biogeographic and endemic evidence for high regional species richness. Biological research in northern Vietnam has largely focused on the Fan Si Pan massif of the Hoang Lien Son Mountain Range, which lies to the west of the Red River and represents the most southeasterly extension of the Himalayas. Northern Vietnam east of the Red River is geologically contiguous with an ancient region of Central China (the South China platform), making it structurally distinct from the rest of Southeast Asia. This geological Chinese affinity is reflected in regional biotic diversity patterns. The dominant vegetation is subtropical humid broadleaf evergreen forest with a large number of temperate elements also found in the southern Chinese regions of Guanxi and Yunnan. The canopy tree Burretiodenderon hsienmu (Tiliaceae), endemic to both northern Vietnam and southern China, illustrates this biogeographical pattern. Northern Vietnamese faunal diversity also reflects shared Chinese affinities, including the primate genus Rhinopithecus and a number of amphibian and reptile groups. There is also direct and indirect evidence for high rates of endemism in the region. Recorded plant endemism is high, and the presence of relictual Tertiary flora suggests that these montane areas served as refugia for subtropical northern flora during glacial extensions. These historically stable climatic and ecological conditions are often associated with high local endemism and diversity. The recent discovery of two megophryid frog species endemic to northern Vietnam indicate the likelihood that faunal endemism is also high. The climate in Ha Giang is temperate and strongly seasonal, but localized montane weather patterns result in highly variable weather patterns between areas. This combination of biogeography, endemism and local meteorological variation indicate potentially high biodiversity and conservation value for this region.

North Vietnam's subtropical montane forests are one of the region's most diverse ecosystems but also possibly its most endangered, under-protected and fragmented. Adjacent, biotically similar areas in southern China have been severely degraded and overexploited, and pressure on the remaining fragments in Vietnam is high. The primary collection site, Mt. Tay Con Linh II, is contiguous along its northern edge with a provincially protected area, Mt. Tay Con Linh I, and a single nature reserve combining these two areas has been proposed. These forests on Mt. Tay Con Linh may represent the most extensive area of this montane forested ecosystem east of the Red River. Biological assessment and conservation efforts focused on this under-surveyed and under-protected region are of the highest priority.

Work Sites
 The primary research location in Ha Giang was at Mt. Tay Con Linh II in Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District (22° 46' N, 104° 52' E). Broad-leaved evergreen premontane and montane forests are the primary natural vegetation type in this region, with deciduous and coniferous elements mixed in at higher elevations. Little forest remains below 1000m, where the land has been largely cleared for agriculture; above 1000m the extent of deforestation and selective logging varies and their impact can extend far up the slopes in many areas. Collections at Mt. Tay ConLinh II occurred along an altitudinal range of 600-1900m, passing from mostly agricultural land to disturbed primary forest. Sampling efforts focused on three main work sites:

  • Tham Ve Village, 600m. This habitat was highly disturbed and modified, consisting of terraced rice paddies interspersed with a scrubby secondary growth of cultivated plants (e.g., bamboo, palms, bananas). Located on the Nam Ma River, a 15m wide swiftly flowing stream with sand and granite bottom.
  • Base Camp, 1400m. The habitat was disturbed primary broad-leaved evergreen premontane forest with an open canopy and extensive woody and herbaceous undergrowth. Dominant tree families included Theaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae and Myrsinaceae.
  • High Camp, 1700m. The predominant vegetation was mixed evergreen and deciduous premontane forest with a semi-closed canopy and bamboo understory. Larger timber trees had been removed; otherwise the forest was minimally disturbed. Botanical abundance and diversity was lower than at the Base Camp site, and the dominant tree families included Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Theaceae, Meliaceae and Magnoliaceae. Situated on a well-drained ridge top.

Freshwater fishes were sampled from the Bcao, Nam Ma and Cao Bo streams and associated pools. These streams were small and clear, with large granite boulders, gravel bottoms and a steep elevation gradient.

Amphibians, reptiles, birds and freshwater fishes were also collected from a supplemental site located at Khau Ria Village in Du Gia Commune, Yen Minh District (22° 54' N, 104° 14' E). This study area was situated on primarily limestone substrates in contrast to the granitic formations at Mt. Tay Con Linh II. Surveying occurred along an altitudinal transect covering 600-1100m. Habitats below 1000m were dominated by rice paddies and agricultural scrub; above 1000m the vegetation was disturbed evergreen forest on largely limestone formations. Fishes were collected from Du Gia stream, a clear, low gradient waterway with a sand and gravel bottom, surrounded by rice cultivation.

At each locality the specific work site locations and microhabitat sampling regimes varied between the taxa collected, and additional localities were sampled for some groups. Additional survey work on small mammals and bats was undertaken in Ha Giang in 2001. A detailed list of taxa-specific work sites, methods and dates is included in the Biotic Survey Reports.

 

Arthropod Research

Survey Team
The 2000 arthropod survey team included Dr. Robert Hanner, Christine A. Johnson and Tam C. Nguyen from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Dr. Khuat Dang Long from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Arthropod inventories were carried out September 7-24, 2000, at Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province (22° 46' N, 104° 52' E). Located in northeastern Vietnam near the Sino-Vietnamese border, Mt. Tay Con Linh (2616m) is the highest peak in Vietnam east of the Red River. The study area is contiguous to the north with a provincially protected forest, Mt. Tay Con Linh I. A single national Nature Reserve combining the two areas has been proposed (BirdLife International, 2002).

Collections were made along an altitudinal gradient of 1100-1800m, with small additional samples taken in the village of Tham Ve, c. 600m. Both stationary traps and general collecting methods were used in suitable microhabitats along this transect. Forest types and distribution at all elevations were typical for granitic mountains in northern Vietnam. Up to 1300m, the forests were predominantly taller secondary growth with a thick understory. At Base Camp (c. 1400m) the habitat was disturbed primary forest dominated by broad-leaved evergreens with an open canopy and an extensive herbaceous and woody undergrowth. Family and generic tree diversity was high, including individuals of Theaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae and Myrsinaceae. This habitat was replaced at higher elevations (c. 1700m, High Camp) by a distinctly premontane mixed evergreen and deciduous disturbed primary forest with a semi-closed canopy of Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Oleaceae and Magnoliaceae, and a single species of dense clumping bamboo in the understory. Further up the slopes (c. 2000m and above) the vegetation was mixed semi-deciduous and evergreen pre-montane to montane forest in a zone of mist and cloud-borne moisture. The most dominant tree family was Lauraceae, followed by Ericaceae and Oleaceae, and the majority of tree trunks supported a thick growth of bryophytes. Between 1400m and 2000m three distinct bamboo species were present in the understory, with marked transition zones at c. 1650m and c. 1800m.

Methods
Methods and collecting protocols were designed to effectively sample focal taxa and the general terrestrial arthropod fauna, provide an altitudinal distribution profile of Mt. Tay Con Linh II, and generate results to be used in comparative analyses within and between survey sites.

Focal groups were chosen to provide a cross-section of arthropod biodiversity and to take advantage of AMNH and IEBR researchers' expertise. The following focal families were included in sampling protocols: Reduviidae (Heteroptera), Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), Vespidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera), and Mycetophilidae and Drosophilidae (Diptera).

Collecting methods can be broadly classified as either permanent traps emptied at regular intervals or general active collecting techniques. Coordinated house malaise traps and pitfall lines with drift fences (five buckets set at 10m intervals along a 50m transecting drift fence) were placed at 1210m, 1460m, and 1800m, and a single flight intercept trap was located at the 1460m site as well. An additional house malaise trap was placed at 1410m, and aerial malaise traps were deployed at 1085m, 1160m and 1300m. These supplemental sites were chosen to increase trap productivity and diversity and to sample additional microhabitats (e.g., gullies, secondary growth). Stationary traps were emptied every 5 to 6 days. Mercury vapor lamp and black light collections were made at night (17:00-23:30) at 1160m, 1210m and 1240m, and on a single evening in the village of Tham Ve (c. 600m). Yellow pan traps were placed on rocks in and next to streams near Base Camp to collect some families of Diptera (Dolichopodidae, Empedidae). Fruit-baited traps were used to collect Drosophila and other fruit-breeding Diptera.

General active collecting methods were used around the stationary trap locations and in suitable microhabitats throughout the study area. Methods included sweep netting, aerial netting, beating, and hand collecting. Particular emphasis was placed on sampling on and near fungi, rotting logs, and in leaf litter.

Preliminary Results
Approximately 3,000 arthropod specimens were collected during the surveys at Mt. Tay Con Linh II in the fall of 2000. Preliminary processing of this material has been completed by the CBC's Invertebrate Preparation Lab and specimens from the focal groups removed for analysis by taxonomic specialists. The CBC will seek additional collaborators to examine interesting groups from these collections once further sorting is completed. The specimens are currently housed in the Department of Invertebrate Zoology at the AMNH; a taxonomically representative half will be returned to Vietnam after preparation, identifications, and descriptions are finished.

Results from these surveys are based exclusively on field observations and thus are extremely preliminary. Initial analysis of the malaise and pitfall trap specimens suggest that arthropod community composition on Mt. Tay Con Linh varies with both disturbance and altitude. In particular, collections from the highest group of traps (1800m) differed from those made elsewhere, and a large number of Lepidoptera were collected in the pitfall lines and observed flying around this cool, cloudy work site. Yellow pan traps set up along streams caught notably abundant and diverse Diptera and Hymenoptera communities. Nighttime forest collections using mercury vapor lamps and black lights included individuals in the groups Mantodea, Reduviidae, Phasmida, Pentatomidae and Coreidae. General collecting methods used throughout the study area caught a number of interesting taxa in the families Miridae, Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Reduviidae, Blissidae, Braconidae, Cerambycidae, and Scarabaeidae. Pitfall lines captured non-arthropod taxa as well, including some interesting shrew specimens. (For more information on the Mt. Tay Con Linh small mammal fauna, please visit the 2001 Ha Giang Small Mammal Report.)

Information on additional specimen identifications, descriptions, species diversity, and arthropod community structure will be included here after analyses are completed.

Literature Cited
BirdLife International. 2002. "Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam." Retrieved February 14, 2002 from BirdLife International Vietnam Programme web site: http://www.wing-wbsj.or.jp/~vietnam/source_book/index.htm (Second edition: http://birdlifeindochina.org/birdlife/source_book/index.html)

 

Herpetology Research

Survey Team
The 2000 survey team included Raoul H. Bain from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Nguyen Quang Truong from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Collections were made in late April and May, 2000, at two localities in Ha Giang Province, northeastern Vietnam. The primary collection site, Mt. Tay Con Linh II, is contiguous along its northern edge with a current provincially protected area, Mt. Tay Con Linh I. A single Nature Reserve combining these two areas has been proposed. Preliminary results from the CBC-AMNH/IEBR herpetofauna survey are included in the report on the Tay Con Linh II Proposed Nature Reserve in the "Sourcebook of Existing and Protected Areas in Vietnam" (BirdLife International, 2001).

The primary study area was located at Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District (22° 46' N, 104° 52' E). Specimens were collected May 6-26, 2000, along an elevation range of 600-1900m. Efforts focused on suitable microhabitats around three sites: 1) Tham Ve Village, 600m; 2) Base Camp, 1400m; and 3) High Camp, 1700m. The work site at Tham Ve was located on the Nam Ma River, a fast-flowing stream 15m wide with sand and granite-bottomed pools and cascades. The habitat was primarily terraced rice paddies interspersed with a scrubby secondary growth of bamboo, palms, bananas and other cultivated plants. Ascending the valley, the secondary forest became taller and more closed, with broad-leaved evergreens and thick undergrowth. The habitat at the Base Camp work site was disturbed primary forest with an open canopy of predominantly broad-leaved evergreens and an extensive herbaceous and woody undergrowth. Family and generic tree diversity was highest at this site, including individuals of Theaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceaea, Rubiaceae and Myrsinaceae. Amphibian microhabitats included small cascading granite-bottomed streams and slower streams with pools. The High Camp site was located along a well-drained ridge-top. The dominant habitat was mixed evergreen and deciduous pre-montane forest with a semi-closed canopy and a single species of clumping bamboo in the understory. The abundance and diversity of botanical species were lower, and the large tree families were dominated by Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Theaceae, Meliaceae and Magnoliaceae. Small streams (2-3m wide) with granite and sand beds and seasonally dry streams and pools were present.

Additional collections were made April 27-May 3, 2000 at Khau Ria Village, Du Gia Commune, Yen Minh District (22° 54' N, 104° 14' E). Sampling occurred along an elevation transect of 600-1100m. Rice paddies and degraded agricultural scrub habitat dominated below 1000m. Above this elevation the habitat was disturbed primary broad-leaved evergreen forest on limestone formations, with dense undergrowth and a thick understory.

Methods
The primary sampling method was visual encounters during day and nighttime opportunistic collecting in appropriate microhabitats. The vast majority of specimens were obtained this way. Visual encounters included searches along streams and pools, under rocks and logs, and within leaf litter. Two pitfall trap lines with drift fences were established near the Base Camp work site. Calls were occasionally used to locate frogs, and recordings were made of some specimens.

Results
A total of 436 specimens were collected during the 2000 herpetofauna survey. These represented 34 species and 7 families of amphibians and 15 species and 6 families of reptiles. All specimens were fixed in formalin and subsequently preserved in ethanol. Tissue samples were taken from a subset (three to five individuals) of each species and preserved in alcohol for DNA analysis. Approximately one-third of the specimens have been repatriated to the IEBR in Hanoi; the remainder are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Herpetology at the AMNH. Additional specimens will be returned to Vietnam after identifications and descriptions are completed.

The herpetofauna collected from these two montane forest fragments in Ha Giang exhibited a moderately high level of biodiversity and endemism. In general the fauna had a distinctly Yunnan (Southern China) affinity and a number of wide-spread Himalayan elements were identified, including Tylototriton verrucosus, Megophrys parva, Rana taipehensis, Amphiesma modesta, and Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri. There was also a strong local component to the observed diversity, notably among the amphibians. Twenty-four percent (8/34) of the species collected are either locally endemic or occupy restricted ranges in northern Vietnam and southern China. The identification of seven frog species complexes suggests that diversity levels may be higher than currently described both for these groups and for the survey as a whole: Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, Limnonectes kuhlii, Limnonectes limnocharis, Rana livida, Polypedates dugritei, Polypedates leucomystax and Rhacophorus verrucosus.

There was evidence that species composition of the herpetofauna communities varied with altitude. Species found only at and above 1400m included Leptobrachium chapaense, Megophrys parva, Philautus spp., and Polypedates dugritei complex; species found at and below 800m included Amolops ricketti, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus complex, and one taxon in the Rana livida complex. A number of species commensal with humans were also found at lower elevations, primarily in edge or paddy environments (all Microhyla sp., Bufo melanostictus, and Ptyas korros).

Two species records from this limited survey represent notable range extensions east of the Red River. Both the Yunnan Firebelly Toad (Bombina microdeladigitora) and the Vietnam Sucker Frog (Amolops chapaensis) are previously known in Vietnam only from Mt. Fan Si Pan, Lao Cai Province. Additionally, one reptile specimen, Opisthotrophis sp., is believed to represent a previously undescribed species as it does not match descriptions of the five congeners known from Vietnam.

Despite these results, observed diversity was expected to be higher. There has been limited surveying of the herpetofauna in northeastern Vietnam, and further work over an extended period would likely increase recorded species' numbers and diversity.

Conclusions
The 2000 herpetofauna survey in Ha Giang was notable for high levels of amphibian endemism (~25%) and species diversity, including the identification of four ranid and three rhacophorid species complexes, and range extensions for two species in Vietnam east of the Red River. There is no published survey of amphibians and reptiles from Ha Giang, and all taxa represent new provincial records. Two reptile and five amphibian species remain unidentified, and it is not clear how many of these represent previously undescribed species. We are currently working on identifications and possible new species descriptions for these taxa.

The two localities visited in Ha Giang represent relict fragments of a distinct subtropical pre-montane and montane forest community once widespread in northern Vietnam and southern China. The species composition of these areas reflects the region's biogeographic affinity to the southern Chinese and Himalayan biogeographic zones. In addition, both endemism and evidence for elevation zonation of species distributions increase local species diversity and complexity. These two factors - biogeographical affinity and regional biodiversity - confer high conservation value on the remaining Ha Giang forests. Their conservation is especially critical since only an extremely limited and fragmented subset of these unique communities are extant in the region. Local interviews and the absence of turtle specimens indicate that hunting has reduced their population levels, suggesting that natural resource use by local populations is currently affecting the species composition of these forests.

Literature Cited - Herpetology Research
BirdLife International (compiler). 2001. "Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam." Retrieved June 27, 2001 from BirdLife International, Vietnam Programme web site: http://www.wing-wbsj.or.jp/~vietnam/source_book/index.htm (Second edition: http://birdlifeindochina.org/birdlife/source_book/index.html)

 

Amphibians and Reptiles Recorded During the 2000 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey

Locality Key
1: Khau Ria Village, Du Gia Commune, Yen Minh District, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
2: Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
         
Species Common Name Locality Status (see citations 1-2) Distribution (see citations 3-34)
         
CLASS: REPTILIA        
Order: Sauria        
Family: Agamidae        
Acanthosaura lepidogaster Green Pricklenape Lizard 1, 2   SE Asia
Physignathus cocincinus Water Dragon 2   SE Asia
         
Family: Scincidae        
Scincella reevesii Reeve's Ground Skink 2   India, China, SE Asia
         
Family: Anguidae        
Ophisaurus harti Hart's Glass Lizard 2   S China, N Vietnam
         
Order: Serpentes        
Family: Colubridae        
Ahaetulla prasina Oriental Whipsnake 1   SE Asia
Amphiesma modesta Modest Keelback Snake 1   Himalaya, SE Asia
Calamaria septentrionalis Collared Reed Snake 2   Assam India, S China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Japan
Oligodon taeniatus Striped Kukri Snake 1   Indochina
Opisthotropis sp. Mountain Keelback Snake species 2   SE Asia
Pareas hamptoni Hampton's Slugsnake 1   China, Indochina
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti sinii Chinese Bamboo Snake 2   China, N Vietnam
Ptyas korros Indian Rat Snake 1, 2   E, SE Asia
Sinonatrix aequifasciata Asiatic Water Snake 2   China, Vietnam
Sinonatrix percarinata Eastern Water Snake 1   China, Indochina
         
Family: Viperidae        
Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri Chinese Green Tree Viper 2   Himalaya, China, N Indochina
         
         
CLASS: AMPHIBIA        
Order: Anura        
Family: Bombinatoridae        
Bombina microdeladigitora Yunnan Firebelly Toad 2   Myanmar, Yunnan, N Vietnam
         
Family: Bufonidae        
Bufo melanostictus Black-Spined Toad 1   SE Asia
         
Family: Megophryidae        
Leptobrachium chapaense Chapa Spadefoot Toad 2   Myanmar, Lao PDR, S China, N Vietnam
Leptolalax pelodytoides Thao Asian Toad 1, 2   Hong Kong, Myanmar, S China, Indochina
Megophrys lateralis Anderson's Spadefoot Toad 1, 2   Bangladesh, NE Myanmar, China, Vietnam
Megophrys parva Burmese Spadefoot Toad 2   Himalaya, N Vietnam
Ophryophryne microstoma Asian Mountain Toad 1   Known Range Restricted: S Yunnan, N Vietnam
Ophryophryne palpebralespinosa Tonkin Mountain Toad 1, 2   Known Range Restricted: S Yunnan, N Vietnam
         
Family: Microhylidae        
Microhyla butleri Butler's Rice Frog 2   S China, Indochina
Microhyla heymonsi Taiwan Rice Frog 1, 2   pan-SE Asian distribution
Microhyla pulchra Guangdong Rice Frog 1, 2   Thailand, S China, Yunnan, Vietnam
         
Family: Ranidae        
Amolops chapaensis Vietnam Sucker Frog 1, 2   Known Range Restricted: S China, N Vietnam
Amolops ricketti Chinese Sucker Frog 2   China, N Indochina
Hoplobatrachus rugulosus complex Wrinkled Frog 1, 2   E, SE Asia
Limnonectes kuhlii complex Kuhl's Frog 1, 2   pan-SE Asian distribution
Limnonectes limnocharis complex Boie's Wart Frog 1, 2   pan-SE Asian distribution
Paa boulengeri Boulenger's Paa Frog 1, 2   S China, N Vietnam
Paa spinosa Spiny Paa Frog 1, 2   S China, N Vietnam
Rana guentheri Gunther's Amoy Frog 1   China, Vietnam
Rana lateralis Kokarit Frog 1   Indochina
Rana livida complex Green Cascade Frog 1, 2   India, China, Indochina
Rana livida complex Green Cascade Frog 2   India, China, Indochina
Rana livida complex Green Cascade Frog 1, 2   India, China, Indochina
Rana maosonensis Mao-Son Frog 2   Known Range Restricted: N Vietnam
Rana taipehensis Taipei Frog 1, 2   Himalaya, S China, Vietnam
         
Family: Rhacophoridae        
Philautus gracilipes   2   Known Range Restricted: N Vietnam, adjacent regions of China
Philautus gryllus Langbian Bubble-Nest Frog 1, 2   Known Range Restricted: Vietnam
Philautus maosonensis Mao-Son Bubble-Nest Frog 2   Known Range Restricted: N Vietnam
Polypedates dugritei complex Sichuan Whipping Frog 2   Known Range Restricted: SW China, Vietnam
Polypedates leucomystax complex Java Whipping Frog 1, 2   Himalaya, S China, Indochina, Indo-Malay Archipelago
Rhacophorus verrucosus complex   1   Known Range Restricted: S China, Vietnam
Rhacophorus hoanglienensis   1   Known Range Restricted: N Vietnam
Theloderma asperum (call only) Hill Garden Bug-Eyed Frog 1, 2   Himalaya, China, Indochina, Indonesia
         
Order: Caudata        
Family: Salamandridae        
Tylototriton asperrimus Mount Yao Newt 2   China, N Vietnam

 

Literature Cited - Amphibians and Reptiles Recorded During the 2000 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey
1. Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. "2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species." International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

2. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). 2001. "Appendices I, II and III." Retrieved June 27, 2001 from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: http://www.cites.org/.

3. Bourret, R. 1936. Les Serpents de l'Indochine, Vols. 1 & 2. Libraire pour les Sciences Naturelles, Paris.

4. Bourret, R. 1942. Les Batraciens de l'Indochine. Gouvernment général de l'Indochine, Hanoi.

5. Campden-Main, S.M. 1970. A Field Guide to the Snakes of South Vietnam. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

6. Cox, M.J., P.P. van Dijk, J. Nabhitabhata, and K. Thirakupt. 1999. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, FL

7. Darevsky, I.S. 1999. The herpetofauna of some offshore islands of Vietnam, as related to that of the adjacent mainland. In: Ota, H. (ed.), Tropical Island Herpetofauna: Origin, Current Diversity, and Conservation, pp. 27-42. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

8. Fei, L. (ed.). 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.

9. Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Association of Systematic Collections and Allen Press, Lawrence, KA.

10. Frost, D.R. 2000. "Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference, v. 2.20" (http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html). American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY.

11. Inger, R.F. 1966. The systematics and zoogeography of the amphibia of Borneo. Fieldiana: Zoology, 52:188-191, 364.

12. Inger, R. F. 1999. Distribution of amphibians of southern Asia and adjacent islands. In: Duellman, W.E. (ed.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective, pp. 445-482. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

13. Inger, R.F., N. Orlov, and I. Darevsky. 1999. Frogs of Vietnam: a report on new collections. Fieldiana: Zoology, New Series, 92:iii-iv, 1-46.

14. Iverson, J.B. 1992. A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. Private Printing, Richmond, IN.

15. Lathrop, A., R.W. Murphy, N. Orlov, and Ho Thu Chuc. 1998. Two new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from northern Vietnam. Amphibia-Reptilia, 19:253-267.

16. Lathrop, A., R.W. Murphy, N. Orlov, and Ho Thu Chuc. 1998. Two new species of Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam with a redescription of Leptobrachium chapaense. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 5:51-60.

17. Liu, C.-C., and S.-Q. Hu (as S.-C. Hu). 1961. Chinese Tailless Amphibians. Science Press, Peking.

18. Manthey, U., and W. Grossman. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier-Verlag, Berlin.

19. Nussbaum, R.A., Jr., E.D. Brodie, and Y. Datong. 1995. A taxonomic review of Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson (Amphibia: Caudata: Salmandridae). Herpetologica, 51:257-268.

20. Orlov, N.L., R.W. Murphy, and T.J. Papenfuss. 2000. List of snakes of Tam-Dao Mountain Ridge (Tonkin, Vietnam). Russian Journal of Herpetology, 7:69-80.

21. Orlov, N., A. Lathrop, R.W. Murphy, and Ho Thu Cuc. 2001. Frogs of the family Rhacophoridae (Anura: Amphibia) in the Northern Hoang Lien Mountains (Mount Fan Si Pan, Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province), Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 8:17-44.

22. Ota, H., M.W. Lau, T. Weidenhöfer, Y. Yasukawa, and A. Bogadek. 1995. Taxonomic review of the geckos allied to Gekko chinensis Gray 1842 (Gekkonidae Reptilia) from China and Vietnam. Tropical Zoology, 8:181-196.

23. Pope, C.H. 1935. Reptiles of China: Turtles, Crocodilians, Snakes, Lizards. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY.

24. Smith, M.A. 1931. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 1: Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis, London.

25. Smith, M.A. 1935. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 2: Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London.

26. Smith, M.A. 1945. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 3: Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London.

27. Taylor, E.H. 1962. The amphibian fauna of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 43:265-599, errata.

28. Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 44:687-1077.

29. Taylor, E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 55:610-1096.

30. Welch, K.R.G. 1994. Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Vol. 1: Venomous Snakes. Longdunn Press, Bristol.

31. Welch, K.R.G. 1994. Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Vol. 2: Boas, Pythons, Shield-tails, and Worm Snakes. Longdunn Press, Bristol.

32. Yang, D. 1991. Phylogenetic systematics of the Amolops group of ranid frogs of Southeastern Asia and the Greater Sunda Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology, New Series, 63:1-42.

33. Yang, D.-T., S. Li, W. Liu, and S. Lu (eds.). 1991. Amphibian-Fauna of Yunnan. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.

34. Zhao, E.-M., and K. Adler (eds.). 1993. Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, MO.

 

Ichthyology Research

Survey Team
The 2000 ichthyology survey team members were Douglas Bruce and Robert Schelly from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Le Hung Anh and Dr. Nguyen Xuan Huan from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Fish specimens were collected in late April and early May at three localities in Ha Giang Province in northern Vietnam. These areas are situated east of the Red River and close to the Sino-Vietnamese border.

Six days (April 21-26, 2000) were spent sampling at the first worksite in Cao Bao Commune, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province (22° 45'-46' N; 104° 52-56' E). Collections were made from the Bcao, Nam Ma and Cao Bo streams and associated pools. The streams were small and clear, with sand and gravel substrates, large boulders, and a steep elevation gradient. The survey team collected one day (April 26) at the second worksite located on the Lo River, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang (22° 48' N, 104° 59' E). The Lo is a large, relatively deep and turbid river, with a mud and gravel bottom. Four days (April 28-May 1) were spent sampling at the third worksite on the Du Gia stream in Du Gia Village, Yen Minh District, Ha Giang (22° 56' N; 105° 13-15' E). Specimens were collected along several kilometers of the Du Gia, from above the village to its confluence with Ban Ly stream. The water was clear, with a sand and gravel substrate, boulders and small pools, little elevation gradient, and there was rice cultivation along both sides of the stream. Specimens were also collected from flooded rice paddies in Du Gia.

In addition to field collections, specimens were supplemented by market purchases when possible. The majority of market specimens were purchased at Ha Giang Market and probably originated within the province from the Lo River and its tributaries. Fishes were also purchased from local Vietnamese fishing along the Duc River near the Sino-Vietnamese border in Thanh Thuy, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang.

Methods
A total of 750 hours were spent collecting fish specimens. Dip nets and seine nets were employed in all localities. Gill nets with varying size mesh were left overnight in small pools, and these were checked in the morning and periodically throughout the day. Local Vietnamese assisting with the collections also used cast nets and hook-and-line. Rotenone use was limited to several small natural and diverted-stream pools. Electro-shocking was not employed.

At each collection site, a number of variables were recorded, including time, collection methods, water temperature and pH, elevation, and latitude and longitude, and brief site descriptions and weather conditions were noted. Photographs were taken of some specimens and worksites.

Results
Approximately 3300 freshwater fish specimens representing 12 or more families were collected during the 2000 ichthyology survey. Captured and purchased fishes were fixed in 10% formalin and subsequently preserved in 75% ethanol. The specimens are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Ichthyology at the AMNH. Approximately half will be returned to Vietnam after identifications and descriptions are completed.

Identifications and analyses of the 2000 Ha Giang collections are in progress and a species inventory list is not yet available. Preliminary field identifications to family indicate that the majority (approximately 60%) of specimens are members of the Cyprinidae. The high proportion of cyprinids is consistent with results of previous survey work in Indochina and Southeast Asia. There is also evidence from this survey that the freshwater fishes of the region share substantial elements with the southern Chinese (Yunnan) fauna. This composition contrasts with the more Indo-Malaysian fauna identified during the 1998 (Northern Truong Son) and 1999 (Ngoc Linh) ichthyology surveys. Finally, although little erosion was observed along sampled streams, there was indirect evidence (e.g., the small number of catfish collected) that the local fauna was highly disturbed by heavy fishing pressure.

Conclusions
Final results from the 2000 ichthyology survey in Ha Giang Province are not yet available. Initial results indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of fishes dominated by cyprinids and with a notable southern Chinese biotic affinity. We are currently working on identifications and possible new species descriptions based on these specimens.
The freshwater fish fauna of Southeast Asia in general and Vietnam in particular is under-surveyed and as a consequence under-described, making taxonomic identifications difficult (Lundberg, et al., 2000). This limited current knowledge highlights the pressing need for well-designed regional surveys to record baseline data on freshwater fish species diversity and distributions. Watersheds, river basins and other freshwater ecosystems are among the most threatened habitats in Southeast Asia, at risk from flow alteration, sedimentation, pollution and heavy exploitation. Expanded taxonomic and inventory work is essential for effective current and future conservation efforts.

Literature Cited - Ichthyology Research
Lundberg, J.G., M. Kottelat, G.R. Smith, M.L.J. Stiassny, and A.C. Gill. 2000. So many fishes, so little time: an overview of recent ichthyological discovery in continental waters. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 87:26-62.

 

Mammalogy Research (Small Mammal Survey)

Survey Team
The 2001 small mammal survey team included Darrin Lunde from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Nguyen Truong Son from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Mammal surveys were conducted at Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province (22° 46' N, 104° 52' E). Located in northeastern Vietnam near the Sino-Vietnamese border, Mt. Tay Con Linh (2616m) is the highest peak in Vietnam east of the Red River. The study area is contiguous to the north with a provincially protected forest, Mt. Tay Con Linh I, and a single national Nature Reserve combining the two areas has been proposed (BirdLife International, 2002). In 2000, researchers from AMNH, IEBR and MBG inventoried amphibians, reptiles, birds, freshwater fishes, arthropods and flora at these work sites.

Small mammals and bats were collected between September 29 and November 3, 2001 along an altitudinal range of 1250-2200m (summit). Forest types and distribution at all elevations were typical for granitic mountains in northern Vietnam. At lower altitudes (c. 1400m, Base Camp) the habitat was disturbed primary forest dominated by broad-leaved evergreens with a relatively open canopy and an extensive herbaceous and woody undergrowth. Family and generic tree diversity was high, including individuals of Theaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae and Myrsinaceae. This habitat was replaced at higher elevations (c. 1700m, High Camp) by a distinctly premontane mixed evergreen and deciduous disturbed primary forest with a semi-closed canopy of Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Oleaceae and Magnoliaceae and a single species of dense clumping bamboo in the understory. Further up the slopes (c. 2000m and above) the vegetation was mixed semi-deciduous and evergreen pre-montane to montane forest in a zone of mist and cloud-borne moisture. By far the most dominant tree family was Lauraceae, followed by Ericaceae and Oleaceae, and the majority of tree trunks supported a thick growth of bryophytes. Between 1400m and 2000m three distinct bamboo species were present in the understory, with marked transition zones at c. 1650m and c. 1800m.

Methods
The primary collection protocols were designed to trap small nonvolant mammals, with an emphasis on sampling the rodent and poorly known shrew fauna. A variety of conventional traps and pitfall trap lines with drift fences were employed, and arboreal traps were placed in trees and lianas to maximize the capture of generally under-sampled rodents in these habitats (Voss, et al., 2001). A small number of mist nets were also erected for capturing bats. Clusters of traps were concentrated at 100m intervals from below Base Camp (1300m) to the summit of Mt. Tay Con Linh II (2200m). Pitfall trap lines were placed in representative habitats at three elevations: 1300m (19 buckets), 1500m (7 buckets) and 2000m (two proximate lines of 10 and 11 buckets). In addition to trapping, all opportunistic mammal sightings were recorded.

Results
Seventeen species of bats, insectivores and rodents were positively identified during the 2001 small mammal survey. Two additional species (Ratufa bicolor and Tamiops sp.) were observed but not collected. These results are based on 217 voucher specimens collected during the survey and five additional specimens collected at the same locality in September 2000 by the CBC-AMNH/IEBR entomology survey team (see the 2000 Ha Giang Arthropod Report). All specimens were fixed in formalin and preserved as whole alcoholic specimens, and the skulls of many specimens were extracted and cleaned. Liver samples were also taken and preserved in lysis buffer prior to fixation. All specimens are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Mammalogy at the AMNH; a representative portion of this collection will be repatriated to the IEBR in Hanoi after identifications and descriptions are completed.

The small mammal fauna collected at Mt. Tay Con Linh II represents a mixture of species known to occur throughout the Indochinese region (e.g., Crocidura attenuata, Cynopterus sphinx, Niviventer fulvescens) and those with strong Himalayan affinities not known from elsewhere in Vietnam (e.g., Chodsigoa parca). Trapping results indicate that an abundant small mammal community is present, with a small number of species dominating each elevation and habitat sampled. Rodent species diversity was lower but shrew (Insectivora) species diversity higher compared to results from the CBC's small mammal survey of Huong Son Forest, Ha Tinh Province in north-central Vietnam (see the 1998/99 Huong Son Small Mammal Report). Among the bat records are a large number of specimens of Sphaerias blanfordi (Blanford's Fruit Bat), a monotypic genus only recently reported from Vietnam (Tordoff, Tran, and Tran, 2000, Vu, Pham, and Cao, 2001).

Hunters were present at the work site, taking both small and large mammals, although common prey species (e.g., Ratufa bicolor) were still relatively abundant.

Conclusions
Noteworthy findings from the Mt. Tay Con Linh II small mammal survey include an abundant small mammal community containing a number of species typical of the temperate regions of southern China. The forests at Tay Con Linh and Yen Bai (located to the south) are relict fragments of 'Yunnan Forest', a distinct sub-tropical premontane and montane forest community once widespread in northern Vietnam and southern China. Their conservation is critical as they represent the last relatively extensive and intact blocks of these unique forested communities remaining in both Vietnam and the region. Although trapping efforts were intensive, the current collections suggest that additional survey work here and in other northern Vietnamese montane areas would clarify our understanding of the region's faunal composition and affinities. A more detailed report on species descriptions, habitat associations and survey results is being prepared (Lunde, Musser, and Nguyen Truong Son, in prep.).

Literature Cited - Mammalogy Research (Small Mammal Survey)
BirdLife International. 2002. "Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam." Retrieved February 4, 2002 from BirdLife International Vietnam Programme web site: http://www.wing-wbsj.or.jp/~vietnam/source_book/index.htm. (Second edition: http://birdlifeindochina.org/birdlife/source_book/index.html)

Lunde, D.P., and Nguyen Truong Son. 2001. "An Identification Guide to the Rodents of Vietnam." Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY.

Lunde, D.P., G.G. Musser, and Nguyen Truong Son. Results of a survey of small mammals from Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. In prep.

Tordoff, A.W., Tran Hieu Minh, and Tran Quang Ngoc. 2000. "A Feasibility Study for the Establishment of Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam." BirdLife International Vietnam Programme, Hanoi.

Voss, R.D., D.P. Lunde, and N.B. Simmons. 2001. The mammals of Paracou, French Guiana: a neotropical lowland rainforest fauna. Part 2. Nonvolant species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 263: 1-236.

 

Mammals Recorded During the 2001 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey (Small Mammal Survey)

Locality: Mt. Tay Con Linh, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
         
Species Common Name Status (see citation 1) Distribution (see citation 2) Comments
         
ORDER: INSECTIVORA        
Family Soricidae        
Subfamily: Soricinae        
Chodsigoa parca Lowe's Shrew   SW China, N Thailand, NE Myanmar, N Vietnam  
Crocidura fuliginosa Southeast Asian Shrew   Assam, S China, SE Asia  
Crocidura attenuata Indochinese Shrew   Assam, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Peninsula Abundant and easily captured in pitfall lines.
Crocidura cf. horsfieldi Horsfield's Tree Shrew (cf.)   S India, Kashmir, Nepal, S Yunnan, Hainan, N Myanmar, Thailand, N Laos, Vietnam, Ryukyu Islands  
         
ORDER: CHIROPTERA        
SUBORDER: MEGACHIROPTERA        
Family: Pteropodidae        
Subfamily: Pteropodinae        
Rousettus leschenaulti Leschenault's Rousette   NE, SE Pakistan, India, S Tibet, S China, SE Asia  
Cynopterus sphinx Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat   India, SE China, SE Asia  
Sphaerias blanfordi Blanford's Fruit Bat   N India, E Nepal, Bhutan, S Tibet, S China, Myanmar, NW Thailand Abundant; mist-netted at 1500m.
         
ORDER: RODENTIA        
Family: Pteromyidae        
Belomys pearsonii Hairy-footed Flying Squirrel Near Threatened Himalaya, S China, Thailand, Vietnam  
Family: Sciuridae        
Subfamily: Ratufinae        
Ratufa bicolor Black Giant Squirrel   E Nepal, Assam, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago Commonly observed 1330-1800m; no vouchered specimen.
Subfamily: Callosciurinae        
Callosciurus inornatus Inornate Squirrel   S Yunnan, N Lao PDR, N Vietnam  
Tamiops sp. Asian Striped Squirrel species   North-eastern Indomalayan region Commonly observed in middle, upper canopy 1400-2200m; no vouchered specimen.
Family: Muridae        
Subfamily: Murinae        
Chiropodomys gliroides Pencil-tailed Tree Mouse   Assam, S China, Myanmar, Indochina, Malay Archipelago  
Niviventer tenaster Tenasserim White-bellied Rat   Assam, S Myanmar, Vietnam  
Niviventer fulvescens Chestnut White-bellied Rat   Himalaya, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina Abundant in all habitats and elevations sampled.
Niviventer langbianis Lang Bian White-bellied Rat   Assam, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam  
Leopoldamys sabanus Long-tailed Giant Rat   Thailand, Indochina, Malay Archipelago  

 

Literature Cited - Mammals Recorded During the 2001 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey (Small Mammal Survey)
1. Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. "2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species." International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

2. Corbet, G.B., and J.E. Hill. 1992. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 

3. Lunde, D.P. GG. Musser, and Nguyen Truong Son. Results of a survey of small mammals from Mt. Tay Con Linh, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. In prep.

 

Ornithology Research

Survey Team
The 2000 survey team included Paul R. Sweet and Christopher J. Vogel from the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Le Manh Hung from the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi.

Study Sites
Surveys and collections were made March through May, 2000, at three localities in Ha Giang Province, northeastern Vietnam. The primary collection site, located on the southern slope of Mt. Tay Con Linh, is part of the Tay Con Linh II Proposed Nature Reserve and is contiguous along its northern edge with the current provincially protected area, Mt. Tay Con Linh I. A single Nature Reserve (Tay Con Linh Nature Reserve) which combines these two areas has been proposed. Preliminary results from the CBC-AMNH/IEBR 2000 ornithological survey are included in the report on the Tay Con Linh II Proposed Nature Reserve in the "Sourcebook of Existing and Protected Areas in Vietnam" (BirdLife International, 2001).

The primary study area was located at Mt. Tay Con Linh II Proposed Nature Reserve, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District (22° 46' N, 104° 52' E). This area was surveyed March 16-21, May 6-26, 2000 along an elevation range of 600-1900m. Efforts focused on three sites: 1) Tham Ve Village, 600m; 2) Base Camp, 1400m; and 3) High Camp, 1700m. The work site at Tham Ve was located on the Nam Ma River, a fast-flowing stream 15m wide. The habitat was primarily terraced rice paddies interspersed with a scrubby second growth of bamboo, palms, bananas and other cultivated plants. Ascending the valley, the secondary forest became taller and more closed, with broad-leaved evergreens and thick undergrowth. The habitat at the 1400m work site was disturbed primary forest with an open canopy of predominantly broad-leaved evergreens and an extensive herbaceous and woody undergrowth. Family and generic tree diversity was highest at this site, including individuals of Theaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceaea, Rubiaceae and Myrsinaceae. The 1700m site was located along a well-drained ridge-top. The dominant habitat was mixed broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous pre-montane forest with a semi-closed canopy and a dense understory of spiny bamboo. Both the abundance and diversity of botanical species were lower, and the large tree families were dominated by Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Theaceae, Meliaceae and Magnoliaceae.

Additional data were collected at two secondary study sites. Khau Ria Village, Du Gia Commune, Yen Minh District (22° 54' N, 104° 14' E) was visited March 23-26 and April 27-May 3, 2000. Observations were made along an elevation transect of 600-1100m. Rice paddies and degraded agricultural scrub habitat dominated below 1000m. Above this elevation the habitat was disturbed primary broad-leaved evergreen forest on largely limestone formations, with dense undergrowth and a thick understory. Mt. Pu Tha Ca, Xuan Chou Xe, Du Gia Commune, Yen Minh District (22° 57' N, 104° 11' E) was visited March 22, 2000. The substrate of this region was primarily limestone, and above 1300m the habitat was old secondary and selectively logged primary evergreen forest.

Methods
Data were collected through capture and direct observation. Collections were made only at the primary work site, Mt. Tay Con Linh II Proposed Nature Reserve. All specimens were collected using mist nets placed in microhabitats to maximize likelihood of capture, including ridge tops, forest gaps and alongside streams. At Khau Ria Village, 15-minute point counts utilizing playback were conducted at 100m intervals along the elevation transect. Direct observations of birds were recorded at all sites and while travelling through the region; notes on abundance and behavior were made.

Results
A total of 150 species in 42 families were recorded during the 2000 ornithological survey, of which 52 species in 17 families were collected. Additional data on age, sex, condition, migratory and breeding status, and social system were also recorded. Specimens are currently housed in the collections of the Department of Ornithology at the AMNH; roughly half of these will be repatriated to the IEBR in Hanoi after identifications and new taxa descriptions have been completed.

The avifauna recorded in Ha Giang was primarily Sino-Himalayan. Taxa indicative of northern Indochina and southern China include Collared Finchbill Spizixos semitorques, Chestnut Bulbul Hemixos castanonotus, Black-faced Warbler Abroscopus schisticeps ripponi, Brown-breasted Flycatcher Muscicapa muttui, Grey Laughingthrush Garrulax maesi maesi, Spot-breasted Laughingthrush G. merulinus obscurus, and Spectacled Barwing Actinodura ramsayi yunnanensis. Species with broader Southeast Asian distributions were also recorded, including Long-tailed Broadbill Psarisomus dalhousiae, Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus, Snowy-browed Flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra, and Sooty-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus aurigaster.

Survey results indicate that this region of Ha Giang has important biodiversity and conservation value. Relatively high species diversity was observed in the three forest fragments, with the highest diversity recorded in broad-leaved evergreen forests above 1000m. This region has been historically under-surveyed and the species recorded during the current survey include a number of range extensions east of the Red River and a new record for Vietnam (Vogel, Sweet & Le, submitted). The presence of a potentially new taxon in the collections also suggests that this region may contain currently unrecognized avifauna biodiversity. Two of the taxa recorded are listed in Threatened Birds of the World (Stattersfield, Capper & Dutson, 2000): Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa (Globally Threatened-Vulnerable) and Short-tailed Scimitar Babbler Jabouilleia danjoui (Globally Near Threatened). Two restricted-range species were also recorded: J. danjoui is distributed east of the Mekong in Vietnam and Lao PDR, and Indochinese Green Magpie Cissa hypoleuca is found east of the Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, and southern China (after Robson, 2000).

Conclusions
Noteworthy findings from the 2000 ornithological survey in Ha Giang are a relatively high level of local biodiversity and the presence of two taxa of conservation interest in the region. Results include a number of range extensions, one new country record, and the collection of potentially new taxa. We are currently working on taxa descriptions and further analyses of these results.

The avifauna of northern Vietnam east of the Red River (Eastern Bac Bo) is relatively under-surveyed when compared to work in western and more southern regions of the country. This makes any information on regional biodiversity and species conservation status a valuable contribution to current knowledge. Results from this survey indicate that the species composition reflects the region's general affinity to the southern Chinese (Yunnan) and Himalayan biota. This biogeographic affinity, high regional biodiversity and the presence of two threatened species all confer prominent conservation value on the remaining Ha Giang forests. The three localities visited during the survey represent relict fragments of a distinct subtropical pre-montane and montane forest community once widespread in northern Vietnam and southern China. Their conservation is especially critical since only an extremely limited and fragmented subset of these communities are extant in the region.

Literature Cited - Ornithology Research
BirdLife International. 2001. "Sourcebook of Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Vietnam." Retrieved June 27, 2001 from BirdLife International, Vietnam Programme web site: http://www.wing-wbsj.or.jp/~vietnam/source_book/index.htm. (Second edition: http://birdlifeindochina.org/birdlife/source_book/index.html)
Robson, C. 2000. A Guide to the Birds of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Stattersfield, A.J., D.R. Capper, and G.C.L. Dutson. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

 

Birds Recorded During the 2000 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey

Locality Key
1: Mt. Tay Con Linh II, Cao Bo Commune, Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
2: Khau Ria Village, Du Gia Commune, Yen Minh District, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
3: Ha Giang Town, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
4: Recorded while in transit in Ha Giang Province, Vietnam
         
Species Common Name Locality Status (see citation 1) Distribution (see citation 2)
         
FAMILY: PICIDAE        
Sasia ochracea White-browed Piculet 1, 2    
Picus flavinucha Greater Yellownape 1    
Blythipicus pyrrhotis Bay Woodpecker 1, 2    
         
FAMILY: MEGALAIMIDAE        
Megalaima franklinii Golden-throated Barbet 1, 2    
Megalaima asiatica Blue-throated Barbet 1, 2    
         
FAMILY: TROGONIDAE        
Tribe: Harpactini        
Harpactes erythrocephalus Red-headed Trogon 1    
         
FAMILY: ALCEDINIDAE        
Alcedo atthis Common Kingfisher 1, 2, 3, 4    
         
FAMILY: HALCYONIDAE        
Halcyon smyrnensis White-throated Kingfisher 1, 2, 3, 4    
         
FAMILY: CERYLIDAE        
Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher 4    
         
FAMILY: CUCULIDAE        
Cuculus poliocephalus Lesser Cuckoo 1    
Chrysococcyx maculatus Asian Emerald Cuckoo 2    
         
FAMILY: CENTROPODIDAE        
Centropus sinensis Greater Coucal 1, 2, 3, 4    
         
FAMILY: APODIDAE        
Collocalia sp. Swiftlet sp. 1    
Hirundapus cochinchinensis Silver-backed Needletail 1, 4    
Cypsiurus balasiensis Asian Palm Swift 1, 3    
Apus pacificus Fork-tailed Swift 1    
Apus affinis House Swift 3    
         
FAMILY: STRIGIDAE        
Otus spilocephalus Mountain Scops Owl 1    
Otus bakkomoena Collared Scops Owl 1    
Glaucidium brodiei Collared Owlet 1    
         
FAMILY: COLUMBIDAE        
Streptopelia chinensis Spotted Dove 2    
Chalcophaps indica Emerald Dove 2    
         
FAMILY: RALLIDAE        
Rallus aquaticus Water Rail 3    
Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted Waterhen 3    
         
FAMILY: CHARADRIIDAE        
Subfamily: Charadriinae        
Vanellus duvaucelii River Lapwing 3    
         
FAMILY: ACCIPITRIDAE        
Subfamily: Accipitrinae        
Aviceda leuphotes Black Baza 1    
Spilornis cheela Crested Serpent Eagle 2    
Accipiter gentilis Northern Goshawk 2    
Accipiter sp. Sparrowhawk sp. 1    
         
FAMILY: FALCONIDAE        
Falco tinnunculus Common Kestrel 2    
Falco severus Oriental Hobby 1    
         
FAMILY: ARDEIDAE        
Egretta garzetta Little Egret 3    
Casmerodius albus Great Egret 3    
Mesophoyx intermedia Intermediate Egret 3    
Ardeola bacchus Chinese Pond Heron 3    
Butorides striatus Little Heron 3    
         
FAMILY: PITTIDAE        
Pitta oatesi Rusty-naped Pitta 1    
         
FAMILY: EURYLAIMIDAE        
Subfamily: Eurylaiminae        
Psarisomus dalhousiae Long-tailed Broadbill 1    
         
FAMILY: IRENIDAE        
Chloropsis hardwickii Orange-bellied Leafbird 1    
         
FAMILY: LANIIDAE        
Lanius tigrinus Tiger Shrike 2    
Lanius schach Long-tailed Shrike 1, 2, 4    
         
FAMILY: CORVIDAE        
Subfamily: Corvinae        
Tribe: Corvini        
Urocissa erythrorhyncha Red-billed Blue Magpie 1, 2    
Cissa chinensis Common Green Magpie 1    
Cissa hypoleuca Indochinese Green Magpie 2   Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, S China
Dendrocitta formosae Grey Treepie 1, 2    
Corvus macrorhynchos Large-billed Crow 1, 2    
Tribe: Artamini        
Artamus fuscus Ashy Woodswallow 3, 4    
Tribe: Oriolini        
Oriolus chinensis Black-naped Oriole 4    
Oriolus traillii Maroon Oriole 1    
Coracina melaschistos Black-winged Cuckooshrike 2    
Pericrocotus roseus Rosy Minivet 4    
Pericrocotus ethologus Long-tailed Minivet 1, 2    
Pericrocotus brevirostris Short-billed Minivet 1    
Pericrocotus flammeus Scarlet Minivet 1, 2    
Hemipus picatus Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike 1    
Subfamily: Dicrurinae        
Tribe: Rhipidurini        
Rhipidura albicollis White-throated Fantail 1, 2    
Tribe: Dicrurini        
Dicrurus leucophaeus Ashy Drongo 2    
Dicrurus aeneus Bronzed Drongo 2    
Dicrurus remifer Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo 1, 2    
Dicrurus hottentottus Spangled Drongo 1    
Tribe: Monarchini        
Terpsiphone paradisi Asian Paradise-flycatcher 2    
         
FAMILY: CINCLIDAE        
Cinclus pallasii Brown Dipper 1    
         
FAMILY: MUSCICAPIDAE        
Subfamily: Turdinae        
Monticola solitarius Blue Rock Thrush 3    
Myophonus caeruleus Blue Whistling Thrush 1    
Brachypteryx leucophrys Lesser Shortwing 1    
Subfamily: Muscicapinae        
Tribe: Muscicapini        
Muscicapa dauurica Asian Brown Flycatcher 2    
Muscicapa muttui Brown-breasted Flycatcher 1    
Ficedula parva Red-throated Flycatcher 4    
Ficedula monileger White-gorgeted Flycatcher 1    
Ficedula hyperythra Snowy-browed Flycatcher 1    
Niltava grandis Large Niltava 1, 2    
Niltava macgrigoriae Small Niltava 1, 2    
Cyornis banyumas Hill Blue Flycatcher 1    
Culicicapa ceylonensis Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher 1    
Tribe: Saxicolini        
Copsychus saularis Oriental Magpie Robin 1, 2, 3, 4    
Rhyacornis fuliginosus Plumbeous Water Redstart 1    
Enicurus scouleri Little Forktail 1    
Enicurus schistaceus Slaty-backed Forktail 1    
Enicurus maculatus Spotted Forktail 1    
Cochoa viridis Green Cochoa 1    
Saxicola torquata Common Stonechat 3    
         
FAMILY: SITTIDAE        
Subfamily: Sittinae        
Sitta formosa Beautiful Nuthatch 1, 2 Globally Threatened-Vulnerable  
         
FAMILY: PARIDAE        
Subfamily: Parinae        
Parus major Great Tit 1, 3    
Parus spilonotus Yellow-cheeked Tit 1    
Melanochlora sultanea Sultan Tit 1    
         
FAMILY: AEGITHALIDAE        
Aegithalos concinnus Black-throated Tit 1   Endemic to SE Asia
         
FAMILY: HIRUNDINIDAE        
Subfamily: Hirundininae        
Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow 4    
Hirundo daurica Red-rumped Swallow 3, 4    
         
FAMILY: PYCNONOTIDAE        
Spizixos semitorques Collared Finchbill 1, 2    
Pycnonotus jocosus Red-whiskered Bulbul 1, 2, 3, 4    
Pycnonotus aurigaster Sooty-headed Bulbul 2, 3    
Pycnonotus flavescens Flavescent Bulbul 1, 2    
Alophoixus pallidus Puff-throated Bulbul 2    
Hemixos castanonotus Chestnut Bulbul 2    
Hypsipetes mcclellandii Mountain Bulbul 1    
Hypsipetes leucocephalus Black Bulbul 1, 2    
         
FAMILY: CISTICOLIDAE        
Prinia atrogularis Hill Prinia 2    
Prinia rufescens Rufescent Prinia 2    
         
FAMILY: ZOSTEROPIDAE        
Zosterops japonicus Japanese White Eye 1    
         
FAMILY: SYLVIIDAE        
Subfamily: Acrocephalinae        
Tesia olivea Slaty-bellied Tesia 1    
Orthotomus cuculatus Mountain Tailorbird 1    
Orthotomus sutorius Common Tailorbird 1, 2, 3, 4    
Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus Two-barred Warbler 2    
Phylloscopus reguloides Blyth's Leaf Warbler 1    
Phylloscopus cantator Yellow-vented Warbler 2    
Seicercus poliogenys Grey-cheeked Warbler 1    
Seicercus castaniceps Chestnut-crowned Warbler 1    
Abroscopus schisticeps Black-faced Warbler 1    
Abroscopus superciliaris Yellow-bellied Warbler 1    
Subfamily: Garrulacinae        
Garrulax maesi Grey Laughingthrush 1, 2    
Garrulax merulinus Spot-breasted Laughingthrush 1    
Garrulax milnei Red-tailed Laughingthrush 1    
Subfamily: Sylviinae        
Tribe: Timaliini        
Pomatorhinus ferruginosus Coral-billed Scimitar Babbler 1, 2    
Jabouilleia danjoui Short-tailed Scimitar Babbler 1 Globally Near Threatened Endemic E of Mekong in Vietnam, Lao PDR
Napothera brevicaudata Streaked Wren Babbler 1    
Speleaornis chocolatinus Long-tailed Wren Babbler 1    
Stachyris chrysaea Golden Babbler 1, 2    
Stachyris nigriceps Grey-throated Babbler 1    
Macronous gularis Striped Tit Babbler 1    
Leiothrix argentauris Silver-eared Mesia 1, 2    
Leiothrix lutea Red-billed Leiothrix 1, 2    
Pteruthius flaviscapis White-browed Shrike Babbler 1    
Pteruthius melanotis Black-eared Shrike Babbler 1    
Actinodura ramsayi Spectacled Barwing 1, 2    
Minla cyanouroptera Blue-winged Minla 1    
Minla ignotincta Red-tailed Minla 1    
Alcippe castaneceps Rufous-winged Fulvetta 1    
Alcippe morrisonia Grey-cheeked Fulvetta 1    
Heterophasia desgodinsi Black-headed Sibia 1    
Heterophasia picaoides Long-tailed Sibia 1, 2    
Yuhina castaniceps Striated Yuhina 2    
Yuhina flavicollis Whiskered Yuhina 1    
Yuhina nigrimenta Black-chinned Yuhina 1    
Yuhina zantholeuca White-bellied Yuhina 1, 2    
Paradoxornis gularis Grey-headed Parrotbill 1    
Paradoxornis verreauxi Golden Parrotbill 1    
         
FAMILY: NECTARINIIDAE        
Subfamily: Nectariniinae        
Tribe: Dicaeini        
Dicaeum chrysorrheum Yellow-vented Flowerpecker 2    
Dicaeum ignipectus Fire-breasted Flowerpecker 1, 2    
Tribe: Nectariniini        
Aethopyga gouldiae Mrs. Gould's Sunbird 1    
Aethopyga saturata Black-throated Sunbird 1, 2, 3, 4    
Arachnothera longirostra Little Spiderhunter 1    
Arachnothera magna Streaked Spiderhunter 1, 2    
         
FAMILY: PASSERIDAE        
Subfamily: Passerinae        
Passer rutilans Russet Sparrow 1    
Passer montanus Eurasian Tree Sparrow 3    
Subfamily: Motacillinae        
Motacilla alba White Wagtail (grey-backed) 1, 2, 3, 4    
Motacilla alba White Wagtail (black-backed) 2, 3, 4    
Anthus hodgsoni Olive-backed Pipit 1, 2    
Subfamily: Estrildinae        
Tribe: Estrildini        
Lonchura striata White-rumped Munia 1, 2, 3, 4    
         
FAMILY: FRINGILLIDAE        
Subfamily: Emberizinae        
Tribe: Emberizini        
Melophus lathami Crested Bunting 1, 2    
Emberiza aureola Yellow-breasted Bunting 1

 

Literature Cited - Birds Recorded During the 2000 CBC-AMNH/IEBR Biotic Inventory Survey
1. Stattersfield, A.J., D.R. Capper, and G.C.L. Dutson. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

2. Robinson, C. 2000. A Guide to the Birds of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Myammar, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

American Museum of Natural History

Central Park West at 79th Street
New York, NY 10024-5192
Phone: 212-769-5100

Open daily from 10 am - 5:45 pm
except on Thanksgiving and Christmas
Maps and Directions