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Bilbiography

Print and web references on freshwater mussel identification.

Citations from the text

Adams, W.F., and J.M. Alderman. 1993. Reviewing the status of your state's molluscan fauna: The case for a systematic approach. In: Conservation and Management of  Freshwater Mussels, ed. K.S. Cummings, et al. 83-88. St. Louis. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.
 
Allan, J.D., 1914. The food and feeding habits of freshwater mussels. Biological Bulletin 27:127-47
 
Allan, J.D., and A.S. Flecker. 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience 43:32-43.
 
Baker, S.M. and D.J. Hornbach. 2000. Physiological status and biochemical composition of a natural population of unionid mussels (Amblema plicata) infested by zebra mussels
(Dreissena polymorpha). American Midland Naturalist 143:443-52.
 
Barfield, M.L. and G.T. Watters. 1998. Non-parasitic life style in the green floater, Lasmigona subviridis (Conrad, 1835). Triannual Unionid Report 16:21.
 
Bauer, . 1988. Threats to the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera L. in central Europe. Biological Conservation 45:239-53.
 
________. 1992. Variation in the life span and size of the freshwater pearl mussel. Journal of Animal Ecology 61:425-36.
 
Berg, D.J., W.R. Haag, S.I. Guttman, and J.B. Sickel. 1995. Mantle biopsy: A technique for nondestructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels. Journal of the American  Benthological Society 14(4):577-581.
 
Blalock, H.N. and J.B. Sickel. 1996. Changes in mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna within the Kentucky portion of Lake Barkley since impoundment of the lower Cumberland River. American Malacological Bulletin 13:111-16.
 
Boelman, S. F., F.M. Neilson, E.A. Dardeau, Jr., and T. Cross. 1996. Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Control Handbook for Facility Operators. Miscellaneous Paper EL-97-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. CD-ROM.
 
Bogan, A.E. 1993. Freshwater bivalve extinctions: A search for causes. American Zoologist 33:599-609.
 
__________. 1996. Decline and decimation: The extirpation of the unionid freshwater bivalves of North America. Journal of Shellfish Research 15:484.
 
Burch, J.B. 1975. Freshwater Unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Hamburge, MI: Malacological Publications.
 
Carpenter, S.R., N.F. Caraco, D.L. Correll, R.W. Howarth, A.N. Sharpley, and V.H. Smith. 1998. Non-point pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-68.
 
Cawley, E.T. 1993. Sampling adequacy in population studies of freshwater mussels. In: Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels, ed. K.S. Cummings. 168-72. St. Louis: Upper Mississippi Conservation Committee.
 
Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. Ottawa: National Museum of Natural Sciences.
 
__________. 1981b. The tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), Part I: Pegias, Alasmidonta, and Arcidens. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 326:1-101.
 
Clarke, A.H. Jr., and C.O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 367:1-79.
 
Clench, W.J. and H.D. Russell. 1940. Fresh water shells of New Hampshire. In Herbert E. Warfel (ed.) Biological survey of the Connecticut watershed, New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Survey Report No. 4:222-27.
 
Coker, R.E., A.F. Shira, H.W. Clark, and A.D. Howard. 1921. Natural history and propagation of freshwater mussels. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 37:75-181.
 
Coney, C.C. 1993. An empirical evaluation of various techniques for anaesthetization and tissue fixation of freshwater Unionoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with a brief history of experimentation in molluscan anaesthetization. The Veliger 36(4):413-24.
 
Cordeiro, J.R. 2000. Status of the tidewater mucket, Leptodea ochracea (Say, 1817), in Halfway Pond, Massachusetts, USA. The Nautilus 114(2):80-83.
 
Cordeiro, J.R. and S. MacWilliams. 1999. Occurrence of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea Miller, 1774) (Bivalvia: Sphaeriacea: Corbiculidae) in Colorado. The Veliger 42(3):278-88.
 
Counts, C.L., III. 1986. The zoogeography and history of the invasion of the United States by Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). American Malacological Bulletin, Special Edition 2:7-39.
 
______________. 1991. Corbicula (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). Tryonia: Miscellaneous Publications of the Department of Malacology, The Academy of Natural Sciences of  Philadelphia 21:1-134.
 
Crane, K.C., D.T. Cardin, and W.R. Elmblad. 1996. Summary of 1995 inventory of aquatic mollusks in northwestern Colorado. Grand Junction: Colorado Division of Wildlife.
 
Dillon, R.T. 2000. The ecology of freshwater molluscs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom.
 
Donnelly, T.W. 1993. Impoundment of rivers: sediment regime and its effect on benthos. Aquatic Conservation 3:331-41.
 
Fenn, M.E., M.A. Poth, J.D. Aber, J.S. Baron, B.T. Bormann, D.W. Johnson, A.D. Lemly, S.G. NcNulty, D.F. Ryan, and R. Stottlemyer. 1998. Nitrogen excess in North American ecosystems: Predisposing factors, ecosystem responses, and management strategies. Ecological Applications 8:706-33.
 
Fichtel, C. and D.G. Smith. 1995. The freshwater mussels of Vermont. Montpelier:Leahy Press.
 
Foehrenbach, J. and D. Raeihle. 1984. A further range extension of the Asiatic clam. New York Fish and Game Journal 31(2):224-26
 
Fuller, S.L.H. 1974. Clams and mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In: Pollution ecology of freshwater invertebrates, ed. C.W. Hart and S.L.H. Fuller, 215-73. New York: Academic Press.
 
Fuller, S. L. H. and C. E. Powell. 1973. Range extension of Corbicula manilensis (Philippi) in the Atlantic drainage of the United States. The Nautilus 87:59.
 
Fuller, S.L.H. and R.H. Hartenstine. 1980. Anodonta imbecilis (Say) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Delaware River basin. The Nautilus 94(1):4.
 
Graney, R.L., D.S. Cherry, J.H. Rodgers, Jr., and J. Caims, Jr. 1980. The influence of thermal discharges and substrate composition on the population structure and distribution of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, in the New River, Virginia. The Nautilus 94(4):130-35.
 
Hanson, J.M., W.C. Mackay, and E.E. Prepas. 1989. Effect of size-selective predation by muskrats (Ondatra zebithicus ) on a population of unionid clams (Anodonta grandis  simpsoniana). Journal of Animal Ecology 58:15-28.
 
Harman, W.N. 1970. New distribution records and ecological notes on central New York Unionacea. The American Midland Naturalist 84(1):46-58.
 
____________. 1972. Benthic substrates: Their effect on freshwater mollusca. Ecology 53:271-77.
 
____________. 1975. Effects of reservoir construction and canalization on the mollusks of the upper Delaware River watershed. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union for 1974:12-14.
 
____________. 1982. Pictorial keys to the aquatic mollusks of the upper Susquehanna. Occasional Papers of the Biological Field Station, State University of New York, at  Oneonta 9:1-13.
 
Harman, W.N., and J.L. Forney. 1970. Fifty years of change in the molluscan fauna of Lake, New York. Limnology and Oceanography 15(3):454-60.
 
Harman, W.N. and C.O. Berg. 1970. Fresh-water mollusca of the Finger Lakes region of Oneida New York. Ohio Journal of Science 70(3):146-50.
 
Hebert, P.D.N., B.W. Muncaster, and G.L. Mackie. 1989. Ecological and genetic studies on Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas): a new mollusc in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46:1587-91.
 
Hebert, P.D.N., C.C. Wilson, M.H. Murdoch, and R. Lazar. 1991. Demography and ecological impacts of the invading mollusc Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:405-09.
 
Hoeh, W.R. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships among eastern North American Anodonta (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Malacological Review 23:63-82.
 
Imlay, M.J. 1972. Greater adaptability of freshwater mussels to natural rather than to artificial displacement. The Nautilus 59:26-9.
 
Jacobson, M.K. and W.K. Emerson. 1961. Shells of the New York City area. New York: Argonaut Books.
 
Jacobson, P.J., J.L. Farris, D.S. Cherry, and R.J. Neves. 1993. Juvenile freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) responses to acute toxicity testing with copper. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12:879-83.
 
Jirka, K.J. 1991. Status of Alasmidonta varicosa, Lasmigona subviridis, and Lampsilis cariosa at selected locations of historical occurrences in New York State. Latham: Report to the New York Natural Heritage Program.
 
Johnson, R.I. 1946. Anodonta implicata Say. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology 1:109-16.
 
___________. 1947. Lampsilis cariosa Say and Lampsilis ochracea Say. Occasional Papers on Mollusks. Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology 1:145-56.
 
___________. 1970. The systematics and zoogeography of the Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the southern Atlantic slope region. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative  Zoology 140(6):263-449.
 
Karatayev, A.Y., L.E. Burlakova, and D.K. Padilla. 1997. The effects of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) invasion on aquatic communities in eastern Europe. Journal of Shellfish Research 16:187-203.
 
Karr, J.R. 1991. Biological integrity: A long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological Applications 1:66-84.
 
Kat, P.W. 1982. Effects of population density and substratum type on growth and migration of Elliptio complanata (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Malacological Review 15:119-27.
 
Kreiser, B.R. and J.B. Mitton. 1995. The evolution of cold tolerance in Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). The Nautilus 109(4):111-12.
 
Leach, J.H. 1993. Impacts of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on water quality and fish spawning reefs in western Lake Erie. In: Zebra mussels: Biology, impacts, and control, ed. T.F. Nalepa and D.W. Schloesser, 381-97. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.
 
Leff, L.G., J.L. Burch, and J.V. McArthur. 1990. Spatial distribution, seston removal, and potential competitive interactions of the bivalves Corbicula fluminea and Elliptio complanata, in a coastal plain stream. Freshwater Biology 24:409-16.
 
Lellis, W.A. and T.M. King. 1998. Release of metamorphosed juveniles by the green floater, Lasmigona subviridis. Triannual Unionid Report 16:22.
 
Marsden, J.E. 1992. Standard protocols for monitoring and sampling zebra mussels. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 138:1-39.
 
Martin, S.M. 1997. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 4(1):1-34.
 
McMahon, R. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. In: Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates, (eds.) Thorpe, J.H. and A.P. Covich, 289-399. California: Academic Press.
 
Miller, A.C. and S. Payne. 1988. The need for quantitative sampling to characterize size, demography and density of freshwater mussel communities. American Malacological Bulletin 6(1):49-54.
 
Mills, E.L., J.H. Leach, J.T. Carlton, and C.L. Secor. 1993. Exotic species in the Great Lakes: A history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19(1):1-54.
 
Mills, E.L., G. Rosenberg, M. Ludyanskiy, Y. Plugin, and B. May. 1996. A review of the biology and ecology of the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), a second species of
freshwater dreissenid introduced to North America. American Zoologist 36:271-86.
 
Mills, E.L., M.D. Scheuerell, J.T. Carlton, and D.L. Strayer. 1997. Biological invasions of the Hudson River basin. New York State Museum Circular 57:1-51.
 
Morgan, D.E., M. Kesser, J.F. Foertch, and J.M. Vozanik. 1991. The Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, extends its North American distribution to the Connecticut River.  Environmental Management 16(4):523.
 
Nedeau, E.J., M.A. McCollouth, and B.I. Swartz. 2000. The freshwater mussels of Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.
 
Neves, R.J. and M.C. Odom. 1989. Muskrat predation on endangered freshwater mussels in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:934-41.
 
Ortmann, A.E. 1911. A monograph of the naiades of Pennsylvania, Parts 1 and 2. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 4: 279-347; Part 3. Systematic account of the
genera and species. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 8(1):1-389.
 
Parmalee, P.W. and M.H. Hughes. 1993. Freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Pelecypoda: Unionidae) of Tellico Lake: Twelve years after impoundment of the Little Tennessee
River. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 62(1):81-93.
 
Peckarsky, B.L., P.R. Fraissinet, M.A. Penton, and D.J. Conklin, Jr. 1990. Freshwater macroinvertebrates of Northeastern North America. New York: Cornell University Press.
 
Smith, D.G. 1983. Notes on Mississippi basin mollusca presently occurring in the Hudson River system. The Nautilus 97(4):128-31.
 
__________. 1995. Keys to the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Massachusetts. Massachusetts. 2d. ed.
 
__________. 1996. Method for preparing freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Unionoidea) for anatomical study. American Malacological Bulletin 13(1/2):125-28.
 
Spidle, A.P., J.E. Marsden, and B. May. 1994. Identification of the Great Lakes quagga mussel as Dreissena bugensis from the Dneiper River, Ukraine, on the basis of allozyme variation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:1485-89.
 
Starrett, W.C. 1971. A survey of the mussels of the Illinois River: A polluted stream. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 30:267-403.
 
Stein, B.A. and S.R. Flack. 1997. 1997 Species report card: the state of U.S. plants and animals. Arlington: The Nature Conservancy.
 
Strayer, D. L. 1987. Ecology and zoogeography of the freshwater mollusks of the Hudson River basin. Malacological Review 20:1-68.
 
Strayer, D.L., N.F. Caraco, J.J. Cole, S. Findlay, and M.L. Pace. 1999. Transformation of freshwater ecosystems by bivalves: A case history of zebra mussels in the Hudson  River. BioScience 49:19-27.
 
Strayer, D.L., and J. Ralley. 1991. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) of the upper Delaware River drainage. American Malacological Bulletin 9:21-5.
 
Strayer, D.L. and J. Ralley. 1993. Microhabitat use by an assemblage of stream-dwelling unionaceans (Bivalvia), including two rare species of Alasmidonta. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12:247-58.
 
Strayer, D.L. and J. Powell. 1992. Appearance and spread of the zebra mussel in the Hudson River estuary in 1991. Dreissena polymorpha Information Review 3(2):1-3.
 
Strayer, D.L. and L.C. Smith. 1996. Relationships between zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and unionid clams during the early stages of the zebra mussel invasion
of the Hudson River. Freshwater Biology 36:771-79.
 
Strayer, D.L., J. Powell, P. Ambrose, L.C. Smith, M.L. Pace, and D.T. Fischer. 1996. Arrival, spread, and early dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in the Hudson River estuary. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53:1143-49.

Strayer, D.L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The pearly mussels of New York State. New York: State Education Department.
 
Strayer, D.L. and A.R. Fetterman. 1999. Changes in distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Upper Susquehanna River basin, 1955-1965 to 1996-1997.
American Midland Naturalist 142:328-39.
 
Strayer, D.L. 1999. Effects of alien species on fresh water mollusks in North America. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18:74-98.
 
Thompson, C.M. and R.E. Sparks. 1977. Improbability of dispersal of adult Asiatic clams, Corbicula manilensis, via the intestinal tract of migratory waterfowl. American Midland Naturalist 98:219-23.
 
Trama, F.B. 1982. Occurrence of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea in the Raritan River, New Jersey. The Nautilus 96(1): 6-8.
 
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R,J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J. D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2d. ed. Bethesda: American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26.
 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Dwarf wedge mussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) recovery plan. Hadley.
 
Vannote, R.L., and G.W. Minshall. 1982. Fluvial processes and local lithology controlling abundance, structure and composition of mussel beds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 79:4103-07.
 
Vidrine, M.F. 1991. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from Evangeline Parish, Louisiana, parasitized by water mites (Acarina: Trombidiformes: Unionicolidae) and aspidogastrid trematodes (Trematoda: Aspidogasteridae). The Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences 37:53.
 
___________. 1996. Najadicola and Unionicola: I. Diagnoses of genera and subgenera. II. Key. III. List of reported hosts. Eunice: Gail Q. Vidrine Collectibles.

Watters, G.T. 1992. Unionids, fishes, and the species-area curve. Journal of Biogeography 19:481-90.

___________.1994d. Sampling freshwater mussel populations: the bias of muskrat middens. Walkerana 7(17/18): 63-69.
 
___________. 1996. Small dams as barriers to freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionoida) and their hosts. Biological Conservation 78:79-85.
 
___________. 1995. Sediment in streams: Sources, biological effects, and control. American Fisheries Society Monograph 7.
 
___________. 1994a. An annotated bibliography of the reproduction and propagation of the Unionidea (primarily of North America). Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contribution 1: vi.
 
___________. 1994b. Form and function of unionoidean shell sculpture and shape (Bivalvia). American Malacological Bulletin 11:1- 20.
 
Whittier, T.R., A.T. Herlihy, and S.M. Pierson. 1995. Regional susceptibility of northeast lakes to zebra mussel invasion. Fisheries 20(6):20-7.
 
Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of the freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9): 6-22.

References on Ecology and Biology

Adams, W.F., and J.M. Alderman. 1993. Reviewing the status of your state's molluscan fauna: The case for a systematic approach. In: Conservation and Management of  Freshwater Mussels, ed. K.S. Cummings, et al. 83-88. St. Louis. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.
 
Bogan, A.E. 1993. Freshwater bivalve extinctions: a search for causes. American Zoologist 33: 599-609.
 
Claassen, C. 1994. Washboards, pigtoes, and muckets: historic musseling in the Mississippi watershed. Historical Archaeology 28:1-145.
 
Cummings, K.S., A.C. Buchanan, L.M. Koch 1993. Conservation and management of freshwater mussels. St. Louis: Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.
 
Cummings, K.S., A.C. Buchanan, C.A. Mayer, and T.J. Naimo 1997. Conservation & management of freshwater mussels II. Initiatives for the future. Rock Island: Upper
Mississippi River Conservation Committee.
 
Dame, R.F. 1996. Ecology of marine bivalves: An ecosystem approach. CRC Press.

Dillon, R.T. 2000. The ecology of freshwater molluscs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.

Gray, E.V.S., W.A. Lellis, J.C. Cole and C.S. Johnson. 2002. Host identification for Strophitus undulatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae), the creeper, in the upper Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania. American Midland Naturalist. 147 (1): 153-161.
 
Hutchinson, G.E. 1993. A treatise on limnology. Vol. 4. New York: John Wiley.
 
Lang, Brian K. 1996. Status of unionacean bivalve research, management and conservation in New Mexico. Triannual Unionid Report, No. 10.
 
Marsden, J.E. 1992. Standard protocols for monitoring and sampling zebra mussels. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes, 138:1-39.
 
Master, L.L. 1993. Information networking and the conservation of freshwater mussels. In: Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels, ed. K.S. Cummings, et al. 126-30. St. Louis. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.

Mellina, E. and J.B. Rasmusen 1994. Patterns in the distribution and abundance of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in rivers and lakes in relation to substrate and other physicochemical factors. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:1024-36.
 
Mills, E.L., M.D. Scheuerell, J.T. Carlton, D.L. Strayer 1997. Biological invasions in the Hudson River: An inventory and historical analysis. New York State Museum Circular 57:1-51.
 
Nalepa, T.F. and D.W. Schloesser (eds.) 1993. Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.

Ram, J.L. and R.F. McMahon (eds.) 1996. The biology, ecology, and physiology of zebra mussels. American Zoologist 36:239-384.

Ricciardi, A., F.G. Whoriskey, and J.B. Rasmussen 1995. Predicting the intensity and impact of Dreissena infestation on native unionid bivalves from Dreissena field density.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:1449-61.

Smith, D.G. 1982. The zoogeography of the freshwater mussels of the Taconic and southern Green mountain region of northeastern North America (Mollusca: Pelecypoda: Unionacea). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:261-67.

Thompson, S.K. 1992. Sampling. New York: John Wiley.
 
Vaughn, C.C. 1993. Can biogeographic models be used to predict the persistence of mussel populations in rivers? In: Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels, ed. K.S. Cummings, et al. 117-22. St. Louis. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.

Watters, G.T. 1992. Unionids, fishes, and the species-area curve. Journal of Biogeography 19:481-490.

Watters, G.T. 1994. An annotated bibliography of the reproduction and propagation of the Unionoidea (primarily of North America). Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contributions 1:1-158.

Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves 1993. Conservation status of the freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9):6-22.

Specimen Collection, Preparation and Preservation

Berg, D.J., W.R. Haag, S.I. Guttman, and J.B. Sickel 1995. Mantle biopsy: a technique for non-destructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels. Journal of the North  American Benthological Society 14(4):577-81.

Cawley, E.T. 1993. Sampling adequacy in population studies of freshwater mussels 168-72. In: Cummings, K.S. et al. (eds.) Conservation and Management of Freshwater  Mussels. St. Louis: Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.

Coney, C.C. 1993. An empirical evaluation of various techniques for anaesthetization and tissue fixation of freshwater Unionoida (Mollusca: Bivalvia), with a brief history
of experimentation in molluscan anaesthetization. The Veliger 36(4);413-24.

Holznagel, W.E. 1998. A nondestructive method for cleaning gastropod radulae from frozen, alcohol-fixed, or dried material. American Malacological Bulletin 14(2):181-83.

Miller, A.C. and B.S. Payne 1988. The need for quantitative sampling to characterize size demography and density of freshwater mussel communities. American Malacological Bulletin 6(1):49-54.
 
Miller, A.C. and B.S. Payne 1993. Qualitative versus quantitative sampling to evaluate population and community characteristics at a larger-river mussel bed. American Midland Naturalist 130(1):133-45.

Miller, A.C. B.S. Payne, D.J. Shafer, and L.T. Neill 1993. Techniques for monitoring freshwater bivalve communities and populations in large rivers. . In: Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels, ed. K.S. Cummings, et al. 147-58. St. Louis. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee.
 
Shema, Michael L. 2002. Collection of unionid glochidia through the use of artificial substrates. In: Allegheny Environmental Science Department, Environmental Scence Senior Comprehensive Projects.

Taxonomic Studies

Brown, K.M. 1991. Mollusca: Gastropoda. 285-314. In: Thorpe, J.H. and A.P. Covich, eds. Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. California: Academic Press.
 
Burch, J.B. 1975. Freshwater sphaeriacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Hamburg: Malacological Publications.
 
Burch, J.B. 1975. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Hamburg: Malacological Publications.
 
Burch, J. 1979. Genera and subgenera of recent freshwater gastropods of North America (North of Mexico). Malacological Review 12:97-100
 
Clarke, A.H. 1981. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. Ottawa: National Museum of Natural Sciences.
 
Henderson, J. 1935. Fossil non-marine mollusca of North America. Geological Society of America Special Paper 3:1-313.
 
Herrington, H.B. 1962. A revision of the sphaeriidae of North America (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). Ann Arbor: Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology 118:1-74.
 
McMahon, R. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. 289-399. In: Thorpe, J.H. and A.P. Covich, eds. Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. California: Academic Press.

Peckarsky, B.L., P.R. Fraissinet, M.A. Penton, and D.J. Conklin, Jr. 1990. Freshwater macroinvertebrates of northeastern North America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Pennak, R.W. 1978. Freshwater invertebrates of the United States. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
 
Walker, B. 1918. A synopsis of the classification of the freshwater mollusca of North America, north of Mexico. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications 6:1-213.

Publications on the Regional Fauna

Clench, W. and H. Russell 1940. Freshwater shells of New Hampshire. Nautilus 54:52-3.

Cordeiro, J.R. 2000. Status of the tidewater mucket, Leptodea ochracea (Say, 1817), in Halfway Pond, Massachusetts. Nautilus 114(2):80-83.

Fichtel, C. and D.G. Smith 1995. The freshwater mussels of Vermont. Montpelier: Leahy Press.

Harman, W.N. 1970. New distribution records and ecological notes on central New York Unionacea. The American Midland Naturalist 84(1):46-58.

____________. 1982. Pictorial keys to the aquatic mollusks of the upper Susquehanna. Occasional Papers of the Biological Field Station, State University of New York at Oneonta 9:1-13.

Harman, W.N. and C.O. Berg 1970. Fresh-water mollusca of the Finger Lakes region of New York. The Ohio Journal of Science 70(3):146-50.

Harman, W.N. and J.L. Forn 1970. Fifty years of change in the molluscan fauna of Oneida Lake, New York. Limnology and Oceanography, 15(3):454-460.

Johnson, R.I. 1970. The systematics and zoogeography of the Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the southern Atlantic slope region. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 140(6):263-449.

Martin, S.M. 1997. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) of Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 4(1);1-34.

__________. 1998. Freshwater fingernail and pea clams (Bivalvia: Veneroida: Sphaeriidae) of Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 5(1):29-60.

Nedeau, E.J., M.A. McCollouth, B.I. Swartz 2000. The freshwater mussels of Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.
 
Smith, D.G. 1995. Keys to the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Massachusetts. 2d. ed. Massachusetts: D.G. Smith.

Strayer, D. 1987. Ecology and zoogeography of the freshwater mollusks of the Hudson River Basin. Malacological Review 20:1-68.

Strayer, D.L., N.F. Caraco, J.J. Cole, S. Findlay, and M.L. Pace 1999. Transformation of freshwater ecosystems by bivalves: a case history of zebra mussels in the Hudson  River. BioScience 49:9-27.

Strayer, D.L. and A.R. Fetterman 1999. Changes in the distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the upper Susquehanna River basin, 1955-1997. American Midland Naturalist 142:328-39.

Strayer, D.L. and J. Ralley 1991. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) of the upper Delaware River drainage. American Malacological Bulletin 9:21-5.

Strayer, D.L. and K.J. Jirka 1997. The pearly mussels of New York state. Albany: New York State Education Department.

Strayer, D.L., K.J. Jirka, and K.J. Schneider 1991. Recent collections of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from western New York. Walkerana 5:63-72.
 
Watters, G.T. 1995. A guide to the freshwater mussels of Ohio. 3d. ed. Columbus: Ohio Division of Wildlife.

Web Resources

http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cbd/collections/mollusk_links/uniopeoplelist.html
  List of mussel researchers and their addresses 

http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cbd/collections/mollusk/systematicresearch.html
  Address and listing of systematic research collections (recent and fossil Mollusca)

http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cbd/collections/mollusk_links/museumlist.html
  Kevin Cummings' page at the Illinois Natural History Survey; useful information, including a directory of people who work on freshwater mussels, and  links to major mollusk collections
 
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/zebra.mussel/
  NAS: National Aquatic Nuisance Species Zebra Mussel Resources page

http://erato.acnatsci.org/ams/
  AMS: American Malacological Society. Leading professional organization of mollusk researchers and enthusiasts
 
http://coa.acnatsci.org/conchnet/
  COA: Conchologists of America. Professional organization of shell collectors and amateur researchers

http://coa.acnatsci.org/conchnet/coaclubs.html
  A list of shell clubs and malacological organizations
 
http://courses.smsu.edu/mcb095f/gallery/
  Photos of pearly mussels, from Chris Bamhardt at Southwest Missouri State Univ.
 
http://www.benthos.org
  NABS: North American Benthological Association. Lots of useful resources, including an important list of links to other sites dealing with freshwater invertebrates
 
http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cbd/musselmanual/index.html
  Freshwater Mussels of the Midwest- Utterbackia imbecillis
 
http://www.nps.gov/miss/features/mussels/index
  Mississippi National River and Recreational Area - Mississippi River Mussels
 
http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/noframe/f078.htm
  Freshwater Mussels in the Lake Huron-Lake Erie Corridor

http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/wildlife/wilddiv/swg/animallist.html
  Preliminary list of species of greatest conservation need in New York state
 
http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/er/non-game.htm
  Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species and Natural Communities in Richland County, Wisconsin

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