Shale

The shale rocks of the Hudson River Series often develop a slaty cleavage, and fertility of the derived soils is variable, though decidedly on the poor side. Shale pasture lands rapidly erode unless woodlands are left standing. The columbine has a wide distribution in eastern United States in a variety of soils.

The soil profile from shale woodlands shows that humus accumulates moderately in these forest over a long period of time.