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Ancient black smokers

Ancient Black Smokers AMNH/R.Mickens

Exhibition Text

Just as they form today at the mid-ocean ridges, the sulfide chimneys that were to become the ores of the Kidd Creek mine, in Ontario, Canada, were forming on the seafloor 2.7 billion years ago. Rock samples from this ancient ore deposit contain the same iron, zinc, and copper-iron sulfide minerals, and have the same textures, as those found in modern black smokers.

For Educators

Topic: Earth Science

Subtopic: Minerals and Resources

Keywords: Hydrothermal vents, Oceanography, Ocean bottom, Minerals, ore deposits

Audience: General