Sources main content.


Tarduno, J. A., et al. "Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago." Science (March 5, 2010).

This research was funded by the National Science Foundation.


  •  Scientists in South Africa ( John Tarduno, University of Rochester)
  •  Ancient quartz crystal ( Rory Cottrell, University of Rochester )
  •  Magnetic field simulation ( AMNH )