Credits main content.



  • Bon, C., et al. "Deciphering the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of the extinct cave bear in the Paleolithic painted cave of Chauvet." PNAS (Published online October 27, 2008).
  • Krause, J., et al. "Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary." BMC Evolutionary Biology (July 28, 2008).


  • Europe, November 2004 (Blue Marble: Next Generation; satellite: NASA Terra/Aqua, sensor: MODIS)
  • Cave bear painting (© 1980 The Field Museum, CK28T, Photographer Ron Testa)
  • Cave bear distribution, late Pleistocene (Knapp et al. 2008, Molecular Ecology [in press])
  • Bear family tree data (Krause et al. 2008)
  • Extracting cave bear DNA photo (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology)

Special thanks to Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, AMNH.