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Scientific Papers

  • Bon, C., et al. "Deciphering the complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogeny of the Extinct Cave Bear in the Paleolithic Painted Cave of Chauvet." PNAS (Published online October 27, 2008).
  • Green, R. E., et al. "A Complete Neandertal Mitochondrial Genome Sequence Determined by High-Throughput Sequencing." Cell (August 8, 2008).
  • Krause, J., et al. "Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal an Explosive Radiation of Extinct and Extant Bears near the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary." BMC Evolutionary Biology (July 28, 2008).



  • Cave bear illustration (©1980 The Field Museum, CK28T, Photographer Ron Testa)
  • Neanderthal reconstruction (AMNH/Roderick Mickens)
  • Chauvet Cave map (V. Feruglio/Y. Le Guillou/F. Maksud/Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication, France)
  • Cave drawings in Chauvet Cave (Jean Clottes; provided by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, Regional Direction for Cultural Affairs - Rhine-Alpes, Regional Department of Archaeology)
  • Cave bear bone in Chauvet cave (P. Fosse/M. Philippe/French Ministry of Culture and Communication)
  • DNA extraction (Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology)
  • Ancient DNA lab at French Atomic Energy Commission (Elisabeth de Lavergne)