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The Human Microbiome Project, an initiative of the National Institutes of Health, is cataloguing trillions of microbes that live within the human body. Researchers are focusing on numerous body regionsincluding the skin, hair, mouth, nose, gut and urogenital tractto identify and study the vast number of microbial species, mostly bacteria, that live there. This project and related research efforts around the world are advancing our understanding of how humans co-evolved with these resident species and how we depend on them to stay healthy. This Human Bulletin presents some fascinating examples of the human microbiome.