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Judy Braus

Judy Braus is Director of Environmental Education for World Wildlife Fund (WWF), where she oversees the Fund's educational initiatives, including management of its national biodiversity education program, "Windows on the Wild." In addition, she provides technical assistance to regional programs in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the U.S., and works to strengthen environmental education throughout the WWF network, which includes more than 40 national programs working in more than 100 countries worldwide. She has been actively involved in national and international environmental education efforts for more than 20 years. Prior to joining WWF, Ms. Braus coordinated environmental education activities and conducted workshops for the Peace Corps. She was also Director of School Programs at the National Wildlife Federation.

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Marianne Cramer

Marianne Cramer is with the School of Environmental Design, University of Georgia. At the time of this Symposium, she was Central Park Planner for the Central Park Conservancy and one of the authors of Rebuilding Central Park: A Management and Restoration Plan, the blueprint currently guiding a multi-million-dollar public-private restoration of the Park's entire 843 acres. She was responsible for initiating the woodlands management and restoration program in 1987 and oversaw and guided its development.

Relevant Publications: Cramer, M. 1993. Urban Renewal. Restoration & Management Notes 11 (2):106-116. Rogers, E.B., M. Cramer, J. Heintz, B. Kelly, and P. Winslow. 1987. Rebuilding Central Park: A Management and Restoration Plan. Cambridge, MA.: The MIT Press.

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David Ehrenfeld

David Ehrenfeld is Professor of Biology in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources of Cook College at Rutgers University. He received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1963 and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Florida in 1967. He has studied the behavior and sensory physiology of animal orientation and navigation in sea turtles and was a scientific organizer of the first World Conference on Sea Turtle Conservation. He is presently a member of the Marine Turtle Specialist Group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature in Switzerland. He was the founding editor, and is now consulting editor, of the international journal Conservation Biology. He was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and received, in 1993, the annual award of the Society for Conservation Biology.

Relevant Publications: Ehrenfeld, D. (ed.) 1995. Readings from Conservation Biology (six volumes). Boston, MA.: Blackwell Science. Ehrenfeld, D. 1993. Beginning Again: People and Nature in the New Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Carol J. Fialkowski

Carol J. Fialkowski is Environmental Educator in the Department of Environmental and Conservation Programs at the Field Museum. She is also on the Adjunct Faculty of National-Louis University College of Education, Chicago State University, and Northeastern Illinois University. She is Chair of the Illinois Environmental Education Advocacy Consortium and of the Steering Committee for Environmental Literacy for Illinois, 2000. She is the co-chair of the National Commission on Urban and Multicultural Environmental Education. She has a B.A. in Social Science from St. Xavier College, and a M.Ed. in Environmental Science from the National College of Education.

Relevant Publications: Fialkowski, C.J. 1994. Evaluation informs good practice. Journal of Museum Education 19(3). Fialkowski, C.J. 1994. Service/action approach - ecological citizenship, urban EE programs: Four examples. The Environmental Education Toolbox. Workshop Resource Manual, National Consortium for Environmental Education and Training.

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Tim F. Flannery

Tim F. Flannery is Principal Research Scientist at the Australian Museum. His leading research interests concern the fossil and modern mammals of the Australasian region. He has particular expertise in the mammals of the Melanesian rainforests. His interests in extinction and endangerment concern the following: 1) The nature, timing, and aftershock of megafaunal extinctions in Australasia; and 2) the nature and extent of Holocene extinctions, especially the nature and causes of modern mammal extinctions in Australasia. He is also interested in the conservation of endangered species, such as tree-kangaroos, in Melanesia.

Relevant Publications: Flannery, T.F. 1995. Mammals of the South West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Sydney: Reed. Flannery, T.F. 1994. The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Sydney: Reed.

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Ellen V. Futter

Ellen V. Futter has been President of the American Museum of Natural History since November 1993. She previously served for 13 years as president of Barnard College. She is director of a number of organizations and has a strong record of public service, including having served as chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Ms. Futter is also a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. She is widely recognized as a dynamic voice for higher education and is an active supporter of women's issues. She has been awarded numerous honorary degrees, and is the recipient of the National Institute of Social Science's Gold Medal Award and the National Organization of Women's Eleanor Roosevelt Leadership Award. Ms. Futter was graduated Phi Beta Kappa, magna cum laude, from Barnard College in 1971. She earned her J.D. degree from Columbia University Law School in 1974.

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Francesca T. Grifo

Francesca T. Grifo is Director of the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History, and Adjunct Professor at Columbia University. She oversees all CBC operations, including projects demonstrating how scientific results are integrated into conservation, policy, and education. Among Dr. Grifo's research interests is seeking solutions to the biodiversity crisis that integrate the competing needs of people and the environment. Her most recent work has focused on the relationships between biodiversity and human health. Earlier work has included national-level biodiversity management and planning in Eastern Europe, and intellectual property rights and benefits sharing, issues related to the commercialization of biodiversity. This work included how policy issues relevant to scientists are interpreted through the Convention on Biological Diversity. Her botanical research focuses on the evolution and systematics of neotropical cloudforest Myrtaceae, incorporating anatomical, morphological, and phylogenetic analysis to address biogeographical questions. Dr. Grifo serves on many boards and advisory committees and is on steering committees of two exhibitions at the AMNH.

Relevant Publications: Grifo, F.T. and J. Rosenthal (eds.). 1997. Biodiversity and Human Health Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Grifo, F.T. and D. Downes. 1995. Valuing intellectual property rights and indigenous knowledge: The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups' Experience. In: Valuing Local Knowledge, S.B. Brush and D. Stabinsky (eds.) Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

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Gary Hartshorn

Gary Hartshorn is President and CEO of the Organization for Tropical Studies and Professor, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University. Formerly, he was Vice President and Chief Scientist for World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and previous to that, served as Director of the Biodiversity Support Program, a consortium of WWF, The Nature Conservancy, and the World Resources Institute. Dr. Hartshorn received a Presidential appointment to the Joint Commission on the Environment in 1991 and again in 1995, and served as that group's elected chairman from 1993 to 1994. He also serves on the Board of Directors of several organizations concerned with global tropical-forest issues. He received his Ph.D. in Forest Resources from the University of Washington.

Relevant Publications: Lieberman, D., M. Lieberman, and G.S. Hartshorn. 1996. Tropical forest structure and composition on a large-scale altitudinal gradient in Costa Rica. The Journal of Ecology 84(2): 137. McDade, L., K. Bawa, H. Hespenheide, and G.S. Hartshorn (eds.) 1994. La Selva biological station, pp. 6-14; and Tree-fall gap environments and forest dynamic processes, pp. 120-127. In: La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rainforest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Paul W. Johnson

Paul W. Johnson is currently Director of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. At the time of this Symposium, he was Chief of the Natural Resources Conservation Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The NRCS is the agency concerned with conservation on private lands. The guiding principle of his leadership was to assure that NRCS works in partnership with farmers and ranchers to meet conservation goals based on local and regional priorities and environmental needs. Prior to his appointment in 1994, he was an Iowa farmer and state legislator. As a representative in the Iowa General Assembly from 1984 to 1990, he was a major architect of Iowa's Groundwater Protection Act, a model used nationwide for its emphasis on research, education, and voluntary approaches to water quality. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan where he received B.S. and M.S. degrees in forestry.

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Ross D. E. MacPhee

Ross D. E. MacPhee is Chairman and Curator in the Department of Mammalogy at the American Museum of Natural History, and Adjunct Professor at Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and the City University of New York. His major interest is extinction - in particular, mammalian extinctions believed to have been caused or indirectly forced by humans within the last 40,000 years. His recent work revolves around the possibility that diseases introduced by humans or their commensals have been proximate causes of extinction in many parts of the world. He conducts most of his field research on islands, because island faunas have been greatly affected by anthropogenic losses. Another major focus of Dr. MacPhee's research is historical biogeography, with particular reference to the mammalian colonization of islands. At present, using paleontological methods, he is interested in determining when and how mammals first reached the islands comprising the Greater Antilles, where recent fossil recovery has pushed back the chronicle of mammalian colonization to almost 30 million years. Other research interests include primate and insectivore evolution.

Relevant Publications: MacPhee, R.D.E. and P.A. Marx. 1997. The 40,000-year plague: Humans, hyperdisease, and first-contact extinctions. Pp. 169-217. In: Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar, S. Goodman and B. Patterson (eds.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. MacPhee, R.D.E. and C.E. Flemming. 1999. Mammalian extinctions since AD 1500: A preliminary census. In: The Living Planet in Crisis: Biodiversity Science and Policy. J.L. Cracraft and F. Grifo (eds.). New York: Columbia University Press.

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Michael J. Novacek

Michael J. Novacek is Senior Vice-President and Provost of the American Museum of Natural History and Curator in the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. As Senior Vice-President and Provost, Dr. Novacek provides leadership to the curatorial staff and advises the president on the direction of scientific research at the Museum. He is a chief spokesperson in enunciating the Museum's scientific programs. As a curator in the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dr. Novacek has conducted extensive research on the evolutionary relationships of extinct and living mammals. His examination of broad-based problems in systematics and evolution draws upon evidence from the fossil record and molecular biology. He is one of the team leaders of the joint American Museum-Mongolian Academy of Sciences ongoing expedition to the Gobi Desert to search for fossils, and in 1993 was one of the discoverers of Ukhaa Tolgod, the richest Cretaceous fossil site in the world. Dr. Novacek was instrumental in establishing the Museum's Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, and is a co-chair of the steering committee of Systematics Agenda 2000, an international scientific initiative to discover, describe, and classify the world's species. He is a member of the National Science Foundation Advisory Board and was recently elected to the Board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Novacek earned his Ph.D. in paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1978.

Relevant Publications: Novacek, M.J. 1996. Dinosaurs of the Flaming Cliffs. New York: Anchor/Doubleday.

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