Data from the GRACE satellites allow scientists to see how fresh water is being redistributed across the continents over time.


CAPITAL: New Delhi

AREA: 1,269,210 square miles (3,287,240 km2 )


POPULATION: 1.18 billion

GEOGRAPHY: India is located south of Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, with the Indian Ocean to the south. Much of India is separated from Asia by the Himalayan Mountains. This range contains the world’s highest mountains. Mount Kanchenjunga, at 28,000 feet (8,500 meters), is the tallest mountain in India. The Indo-Gangetic Plain, which runs between the Indus and Ganges rivers, lies just south of the Himalayas. The Thar Desert is located on the northwestern end of India, and much of southern part of the country is part of the Deccan Plateau.

CLIMATE: With a variation in climate from tropical monsoons in the south to temperate conditions in the north, India experiences a wide range of weather. The nation has four seasons: winter (January and February), summer (March to May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October to December).

ECONOMY: India has a diverse economy that includes traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, modern industry, and computer services. Information technology services are a major source of economic growth, accounting for more than half of India’s output with less than one-third of its labor force. Slightly more than half of the work force is in agriculture.

Photo © Jim Trodel


The GRACE data visualization shows changes in total freshwater storage across the landscape for the period January 2007 to March 2009, relative to the average amount of water at that location during this period. The blue colors show regions that are wetter than the average and the red colors show regions that are dryer.


Examine areas in detail: