Curriculum Vitae (short version)
- SUNY at Stony Brook, Ph.D., 1998
- SUNY at Stony Brook, M.A., 1995
- Rice University, B.A., 1990
Research InterestsResearch Interests
Brian Richmond’s research involves recovering evidence from the fossil record about how humans evolved, and exploring how and why our bodies evolved to develop, function, and look the way they do now. The human fossil record provides the raw evidence of what anatomy and species existed in the past, and where, when, and in what context they existed. Richmond and his colleagues pursue fieldwork in Africa to expand the human fossil record, and conduct comparative and laboratory analyses to test ideas about the significance of the anatomy found in the fossil record. His research has especially focused on the origins of walking upright in two legs, and how walking gait, body size, and body shape (such as limb proportions) changed during human evolution. His comparative and experimental research has also shed new light on how our manual dexterity, foot function, and chewing anatomy evolved over the past several million years.
His search for early human and ape fossils has included fieldwork in Ethiopia, Turkey, Tanzania, and Kenya. He currently codirects fieldwork in East Turkana, Kenya, where he and his team have unearthed new fossils and some of the oldest footprints in the human family tree.
Grabowski M, Hatala KG, Jungers WL, Richmond BG. 2015. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size. Journal of Human Evolution 85: 75-93.
Roach NT, Richmond BG. 2015. Humeral torsion does not dictate shoulder position, but does influence throwing speed. Journal of Human Evolution 85: 206-211.
Chalk J, Wright BW, Lucas PW, Schuhmacher KD, Vogel ER, Fragaszy D, Visalberghi E, Izar P, Richmond BG. 2015. Age-related variation in the mechanical properties of foods processed by Sapajus libidinosus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22865
Chirchir H, Kivell TL, Ruff CB, Hublin J-J, Carlson K, Zipfel B, Richmond BG. 2015. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1411696112
Roach NT, Richmond BG. 2015. Clavicle length, throwing performance and the reconstruction of the Homo erectus shoulder. Journal of Human Evolution.
Rabey K, Green DJ, Taylor A, Begun D, Richmond BG, McFarlin S. 2015. Locomotor activity influences muscle and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology. Journal of Human Evolution 78: 91-102.
Smith AL, Benazzi S, Ledogar JA, Tamvada K, Smith L, Weber GW, Spencer MA, Lucas PW, Michael S, Al-Fadhalah K, Almusallam AS, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Wood S, Dzialo C, Berthaume M, Strait DS. 2015. The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Paranthropus boisei. Anatomical Record 298: 145-167.
Smith AL, Benazzi S, Ledogar JA, Tamvada K, Smith LCP, Weber GW, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Strait DS. 2015. Biomechanical implications of intraspecific shape variation in chimpanzee crania: moving towards an integration of geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis. Anatomical Record 298: 122-144.
Archer W, Braun DR, Harris JWK, McCoy JT, Richmond BG. 2014. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin. Journal of Human Evolution 77: 74-87.
Williams EM, Gordon AD, Richmond BG. 2014. Biomechanics of accuracy and force production during stone tool production. Journal of Human Evolution 72: 52-63.
Strait DS, Constantino P, Lucas PW, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Wood BA, Weber GW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Chalk J, Smith AL, Smith LC, Wood S, Berthaume M, Benazzi S, Dzialo C, Tamvada K, Ledogar JA. 2013. Diet and dietary adaptations in early hominins: The hard food perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 151: 339-355.
Hatala KG, Dingwall HL, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG. 2013. The relationship between plantar pressure and footprint shape. Journal of Human Evolution 65: 21-28.
Dingwall HL, Hatala KG, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG. 2013. Hominin stature, body mass, and walking speed estimates based on 1.5 million-year-old fossil footprints at Ileret, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 64: 556-568.
Hatala KG, Dingwall HL, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG. 2013. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations. PLoS One 8: e52548.
Green DJ, Richmond BG, Miran SL. 2012. Mouse shoulder morphology responds to locomotor activity and the kinematic differences of climbing and running. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 999B: 1-18.
Diogo R, Richmond BG, Wood B. 2012. Evolution and homologies of human hand and forearm muscles, with notes on thumb movements and tool use. Journal of Human Evolution 63: 64-78.
Williams EM, Gordon AD, Richmond BG. 2012. Hand pressure distribution during Oldowan stone tool production. Journal of Human Evolution 62: 520-532.
Carvalho S, Biro D, Cunha E, Hockings K, McGrew WC, Richmond BG, Matsuzawa T. 2012. Chimpanzee carrying behaviour and the origins of human bipedality. Current Biology 22(6): R180-1.
Strait DS, Weber GW, Constantino P, Lucas PW, Chalk J, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Schrein C, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Wood BA, Hylander WL, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Smith AL, Smith LC, Tamvada K. 2012. Microwear, mechanics and the feeding adaptations of Australopithecus africanus. Journal of Human Evolution 62: 165-168.
Griffin NL, D’Août K, Ryan TM, Richmond BG, Ketcham RA, Postnov A. 2010. Comparative forefoot trabecular bone architecture in extant hominids. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 202-213.
Braun DR, Harris JWK, Levin NE, McCoy JT, Herries AIR, Bamford M, Bishop L, Richmond BG, Kibunjia M. 2010. Early hominin dietary breadth 1.95 Myr ago in East Turkana, Kenya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 107: 10002-10007.
Williams EM, Gordon AD, Richmond BG. 2010. Upper limb kinematics and the role of the wrist during stone tool production. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143: 134-145.
Strait DS, Grosse IR, Dechow PC, Smith AL, Wang Q, Weber GW, Neubauer S, Chalk J, Richmond BG, Lucas PW, Spencer MA, Schrein C, Ross CF, Wright BW, Byron C, Ross CF. 2010. The structural rigidity of the cranium of Australopithecus africanus: implications for diet, dietary adaptations, and the allometry of feeding biomechanics. Anatomical Record 293: 583-593.
Griffin NL and Richmond BG. 2010. Joint orientation and function in great ape and human proximal pedal phalanges. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141: 116-123.
Bennett M, Harris JWK, Richmond BG, Braun DR, Mbua E, Kiura P, Olago D, Kibunjia M, Omuombo C, Behrensmeyer AK, Huddart D, Gonzalez S. 2009. Early hominin foot morphology based on 1.5 million year-old footprints from Ileret, Kenya. Science 323: 1197-1201.
Strait DS, Weber GW, Neubauer S, Chalk J, Richmond BG, Lucas PW, Spencer MA, Schrein C, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Constantino P, Wood BA, Lawn B, Wang Q, Slice DE, Byron C, Smith AL. 2009. The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 2124-2129.
Richmond BG and Jungers WL. 2008. Orrorin tugenensis femoral morphology and the evolution of hominin bipedalism. Science 319: 1662-1665.
Richmond BG. 2007. Biomechanics of phalangeal curvature. Journal of Human Evolution 53: 678-690.
Begun D, Richmond BG, Strait DS. 2007. Comment on “Origin of Human Bipedalism As an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches?” Science 318: 1066-1067.
Richmond BG, Wright BW, Grosse I, Dechow PC, Ross C, Spencer M, Strait D. 2005. Finite element analysis in functional morphology. Anatomical Record 238A: 259-274.
Kappelman J, Rasmussen DT, Sanders WJ, Feseha M, Bown T, Copeland P, Crabaugh J, Fleagle J, Glantz M, Gordon A, Jacobs B, Maga M, Muldoon K, Pan A, Pyne L, Richmond BG, Ryan T, Seiffert ER, Sen S, Todd L, Wiemann M, and Winkler A. 2003. Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia. Nature 426: 549-552.
Panger MA, Brooks AS, Richmond BG, Wood BA. 2002. Older than the Oldowan: Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use. Evolutionary Anthropology 11: 234-245.
Richmond BG, Aiello LC, Wood BA. 2002. Early hominin limb proportions. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 529-548.
Richmond BG, Begun DR, Strait DS. 2001. The origin of human bipedalism: the knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 116 (S33): 70-105.
Richmond BG and Strait DS. 2000. Evidence that humans evolved from knuckle-walking ancestors. Nature 404: 382-385.
Wood BA and Richmond BG. 2000. Human Evolution: Taxonomy and Paleobiology. Journal of Anatomy 196: 19-60.
Teaching ExperienceTeaching Experience
- Faculty, NYCEP (New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology), 2014-present
- Chair (2010-13), Associate Professor (2006-2014), Assistant Professor (2002-06), Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University
- Associate Professor (2006-14, Assistant Professor (2002-06), Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University
- Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2000-02
- Henry R. Luce Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, 1998-2000
- Instructor: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Health Care Sciences, Program in Physical Therapy, George Washington University, 1998-2000
- Introduction to Biological Anthropology (2008, 2006, 2004, 2002)
- Biological Bases of Human Behavior (2008, 2007, 2006, 2004, 2001, 2000)
- Human Functional Anatomy (2011, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002)
- Human Evolutionary Anatomy (2008, 2006, 2000, 1999)
- Hominin Evolution (2013, 2010, 2001)
- Functional Morphology, seminar (2009, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002)
- Reconstructing Species and Behavior in the Fossil Record (2000)
- Paleoanthropology (2004)
- Analytical & Statistical Methods (2013, 2011, 2008, 2006, 2005, 2003)
- Hominid Paleobiology (2014, 2012, 2010, 2007, 2005)
- Ethics and Professional Practice (2013)
- Problem-Based Learning (2009)
- Public Understanding of Science Internship (2009, 2003)
- Human Gross Anatomy (2009, 2008, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 1999, 1998)
- Kelly Ostrofsky, The George Washington University. 2013-present
- Vance Powell, The George Washington University. 2012-present
- Cassandra Turcotte, The George Washington University. 2012-present
- Kevin Hatala, The George Washington University. 2014. Fossil footprints and the dynamics of footprint formation: Implications for the evolution of human gait
- Habiba Chirchir, The George Washington University. 2013. Why do humans have unusually low trabecular density? A comparative and experimental study on the factors influencing trabecular bone density
- Janine Chalk, The George Washington University. 2011. The Effects of Feeding Strategies and Food Mechanics on the Ontogeny of Masticatory Function in the Cebus libidinosus Cranium
- Erin Marie Williams, The George Washington University. 2011. Biomechanical strategies during Oldowan and Acheulean stone tool production
- David Green, The George Washington University. 2010. Shoulder Functional Anatomy and Development – Implications for Interpreting Early Hominin Locomotion
- Nicole Griffin, The George Washington University. 2009. Comparative Forefoot Kinematics and Bone Architecture In Extant Hominids
- Angel Zeininger, University of Texas at Austin. 2013. Ontogeny of Human Bipedalism: Pedal mechanics and Trabecular Bone Morphology
- Rui Diogo, The George Washington University. 2011. Origin, homologies and evolution of primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles and the use of myological characters to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within the primate clade
- Katie Staab, The George Washington University. 2011. Development, Functional Morphology, and Evolution of Kinethmoid-Mediated Premaxillary Protrusion
- Laurent Puymerail, Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle Ecole Doctorale (Paris). 2011. Caracterisation de L'endostructure et des Proprietes Biomecaniques de la Diaphyse Femorale : La Signature de la Bipedie et la Reconstruction des Paleo-Repertoires Posturaux et Locomoteurs des Hominines
- María del Rosario Castañeda, The George Washington University. 2010. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Dactyloa Clade of Anolis Lizards (Squamata: Iguanidae), with a Morphometric Analysis of Characters Associated with Habitat Use
- Tim Peterson, University of New Mexico. 2010. Taxonomic Implications of Basicranial Variation in Australopithecus africanus
- Robin Teague, The George Washington University. 2009. The Ecological Context of the Early Pleistocene Hominin Dispersal to Asia
- Biren Patel, Stony Brook University. 2008. Biomechanics and Functional Morphology of Digitigrade Hand Postures in Cercopithecoid Primates
- Lisa Nevell, The George Washington University. 2008. Hominin Cranial Base Evolution And Genes Implicated In Basioccipital Development
- Matt Skinner, The George Washington University. 2008. Enamel-Dentine Junction Morphology of Extant Hominoid and Fossil Hominin Lower Molars
- Paul Constantino, The George Washington University. 2007. Primate Masticatory Adaptations to Fracture-Resistant Foods
- Tracy Kivell, University of Toronto. 2007. Ontogeny of the Hominoid Midcarpal Joint and Implications for the Origin of Human Bipedalism
Served on 16 committees since 2003; recent committees include: