Excerpt: At the Pole by Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen, 1872-1928
The first man to reach the South Pole, Norwegian Roald Amundsen explored both the Arctic and the Antarctic. As a mate on the Belgica expedition of 1897, the first one to winter over on Antarctica, Amundsen gained invaluable experience with skis, sleds, and sled dogs. Between 1903-6, he commanded the Gjöa, the first single ship to complete the Northwest Passage (crossing from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Archipelago). Amundsen then purchased fellow Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen's boat, the Fram, which was specially built to resist being crushed by ice, and headed for the North Pole in 1910. Upon hearing that that Robert E. Peary had already reached it, Amundsen changed his mind and headed south. He cabled the news to Robert F. Scott in Melbourne, Australia, igniting the race to the South Pole. Amundsen drew on his polar experience to try an unexplored route across the Axel Heiberg Glacier, which served him well. He landed on the Ross Ice Shelf with 116 dogs and started for the Pole on October 20, 1911 with four companions, four sleds and fifty-two dogs. He reached it on December 14, 1911, thirty days ahead of Scott, and tells the story in the journal excerpt which follows. Afterwards Amundsen continued his polar adventures, negotiating the Northeast Passage (the water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific along the north coast of Europe and Asia) in the Maud between 1918 and 1920. He also flew over the North Pole and previously unexplored regions of the Northern Arctic in a plane built and piloted by Umberto Nobile. When Nobile's plane crashed in 1928, Amundsen set out on a rescue mission and never returned.
The next day, December 1, was a very fatiguing one for us all. From early morning a blinding blizzard raged from the southeast, with a heavy fall of snow. The going was of the very worst kindpolished ice. I stumbled forward on ski, and had comparatively easy work. The drivers had been obliged to take off their skis and put them on the loads, so as to walk by the side, support the sledges, and give the dogs help when they came to a difficult place; and that was pretty often, for on this smooth ice surface there were a number of small scattered sastrugi (ridges in the snow), and these consisted of a kind of snow that reminded one more of fish-glue than of anything else when the sledges came in contact with it. The dogs could get no hold with their claws on the smooth ice, and when the sledge came on to one of these tough little waves, they could not manage to haul it over, try as they might. The driver then had to put all his strength into it to prevent the sledge stopping. Thus in most cases the combined efforts of men and dogs carried the sledge on.
In the course of the afternoon the surface again began to be more disturbed, and great crevasses crossed our path time after time. These crevasses were really rather dangerous; they looked very innocent, as they were quite filled up with snow, but on a nearer acquaintance with them we came to understand that they were far more hazardous than we dreamed of at first. It turned out that between the loose snow-filling and the firm ice edges there was a fairly broad, open space, leading straight down into the depths. The layer of snow which covered it over was in most cases quite thin. In driving out into one of these snow-filled crevasses nothing happened as a rule; but it was in getting off on the other side that the critical moment arrived. For here the dogs came up on to the smooth ice surface, and could get no hold for their claws, with the result that it was left entirely to the driver to haul the sledge up. The strong pull he then had to give sent him through the thin layer of snow. Under these circumstances he took a good, firm hold of the sledge-lashing, or of a special strap that had been made with a view to these accidents. But familiarity breeds contempt, even with the most cautious, and some of the drivers were often within an ace of going down into "the cellar."
If this part of the journey was trying for the dogs, it was certainly no less so for the men. If the weather had even been fine, so that we could have looked about us, we should not have minded it so much, but in this vile weather it was, indeed, no pleasure. Our time was also a good deal taken up with thawing noses and cheeks as they frozenot that we stopped; we had no time for that. We simply took off a mitt, and laid the warm hand on the frozen spot as we went; when we thought we had restored sensation, we put the hand back into the mitt. By this time it would want warming. One does not keep one's hands bare for long with the thermometer several degrees below zero and a storm blowing. In spite of the unfavorable conditions we had been working in, the sledge-meters that evening showed a distance of fifteen and a half miles. We were well satisfied with the day's work when we camped.
Let us cast a glance into the tent this evening.... Hanssen is cook, and will not turn in until the food is ready and served.... He evidently does not like to burn the food, and his spoon stirs the contents of the pot incessantly. "Soup!" The effect of the word is instantaneous. Everyone sits up at once with a cup in one hand and a spoon in the other.... Scalding hot it is, as one can see by the faces, but for all that it disappears with surprising rapidity. Again the cups are filled, this time with more solid stuffpemmican.... The cups are carefully scraped, and the enjoyment of bread and water begins. It is easy to see, too, that it is an enjoymentgreater, to judge by the pleasure on their faces, than the most skillfully devised menu could afford.
When the meal is over, one of them calls for scissors and looking-glass, and then one may see the Polar explorers dressing their hair for the approaching Sunday. The beard is cut quite short with the clipper every Saturday evening; this is done not so much from motives of vanity as from considerations of utility and comfort. The beard invites an accumulation of ice, which may often be very embarrassing. A beard in the Polar regions seems to me to be just as awkward and unpractical aswell, let us say, walking with a tall hat on each foot. As the beard-clipper and the mirror make their round, one after the other disappears into his bag, and with five "Good-nights," silence falls upon the tent.... The dogs have curled themselves up, and do not seem to trouble themselves about the weather.
Next day (December 5) there was a gale from the north, and once more the whole plain was a mass of drifting snow. In addition to this there was thick falling snow, which blinded us and made things worse, but a feeling of security had come over us and helped us to advance rapidly and without hesitation, although we could see nothing. That day we encountered new surface conditionsbig, hard snow waves (sastrugi). These were anything but pleasant to work among, especially when one could not see them. It was of no use for us "forerunners" to think of going in advance under these circumstances, as it was impossible to keep on one's feet. Three or four paces was often the most we managed to do before falling down. The sastrugi were very high, and often abrupt; if one came on them unexpectedly, one required to be more than an acrobat to keep on one's feet. The plan we found to work best in these conditions was to let Hanssen's dogs go first; this was an unpleasant job for Hanssen, and for his dogs too, but it succeeded, and succeeded well. An upset here and there was, of course, unavoidable, but with a little patience the sledge was always righted again.... It is a difficult matter to drive Eskimo dogs forward when they cannot see; but Hanssen managed it well, both getting the days on and steering his course by compass. One would not think it possible to keep an approximately right course when the uneven ground gives such violent shocks that the needle flies several times round the compass, and is no sooner still again than it recommences the same dance; but when at last we got an observation, it turned out that Hanssen had steered to a hair, for the observations and dead reckoning agreed to a mile. In spite of all hindrances, and of being able to see nothing, the sledge meters showed nearly twenty-five miles.
December 6 brought the same weather: thick snow, sky and plain all one, nothing to be seen.... These irregularities that one was constantly falling over were a nuisance; if we had met with them in our usual surroundings it would not have mattered so much; but up here on the high ground, where we had to stand and gasp for breath every time we rolled over, it was certainly not pleasant.
That day we passed 88ºS, and camped in 88º 9'S. A great surprise awaited us in the tent that evening. I expected to find, as on the previous evening, that the boiling point had fallen somewhat; in other words, that it would show a continued rise of the ground, but to our astonishment this was not so. The water boiled at exactly the same temperature as on the preceding day.... There was great rejoicing among us all when I was able to announce that we had arrived on the top of the plateau.
All the sledges had stopped, and from the foremost of them the Norwegian flag was flying. It shook itself out, waved and flapped so that the silk rustled; it looked wonderfully well in the pure, clear air and the shining white surroundings. 88º 23' was past; we were farther south than any human being had been. No other moment of the whole trip affected me like this. The tears forced their way to my eyes; by no effort of will could I keep them back. It was the flag yonder that conquered me and my will. Luckily I was some way in advance of the others, so that I had time to pull myself together and master my feelings before reaching my comrades. We all shook hands, with mutual congratulations; we had won our way far by holding together, and we would go farther yetto the end.
We did not pass that spot without according our highest tribute of admiration to the man whotogether with his gallant companionshad planted his country's flag so infinitely nearer to the goal than any of his precursors. Sir Ernest Shackleton's name will always be written in the annals of Antarctic exploration in letters of fire. Pluck and grit can work wonders, and I know of no better example of this than what that man has accomplished.
Every step we now took in advance brought us rapidly nearer the goal; we could feel fairly certain of reaching it on the afternoon of the 14th.... What should we see when we got there? A vast, endless plain, that no eye had yet seen and no foot yet trodden; or no, it was an impossibility; with the speed at which we had traveled, we must reach the goal first, there could be no doubt about that. And yetwherever there is the smallest loophole, doubt creeps in and gnaws and gnaws and never leaves a poor wretch in peace.... It was quite extraordinary to see how [the dogs] raised their heads, with every sign of curiosity, put their noses in the air, and sniffed due south. One would really have thought there was something remarkable to be found there.
On the morning of December 14 the weather was of the finest, just as if it had been made for arriving at the Pole. I am not quite sure, but I believe we dispatched our breakfast rather more quickly than usual and were out of the tent sooner, though I must admit that we always accomplished this with all reasonable haste.... We advanced that day in the same mechanical way as before; not much was said, but eyes were used all the more. Hanssen's neck grew twice as long as before in his endeavor to see a few inches farther....
At three in the afternoon a simultaneous, "Halt," rang out from the drivers. They had carefully examined their sledge-meters, and they all showed the full distanceour Pole by reckoning. The goal was reached, the journey ended. I cannot saythough I know it would sound much more effectivethat the object of my life was attained. That would be romancing rather too barefacedly. I had better be honest and admit straight out that I have never known any man to be placed in such a diametrically opposite position to the goal of his desires as I was at that moment. The regions around the North Polewell, yes, the North Pole itselfhad attracted me from childhood, and here I was at the South Pole. Can anything more topsy-turvy be imagined?
....After we had halted we collected and congratulated each other.... After this we proceeded to the greatest and most solemn act of the whole journeythe planting of our flag. Pride and affection shone in the five pairs of eyes that gazed upon the flag, as it unfurled itself with a sharp crack, and waved over the Pole. I had determined that the act of planting itthe historic eventshould be equally divided among us all. It was not for one man to do this; it was for all who had staked their lives in the struggle, and held together through thick and thin.... I could see that they understood and accepted it in the spirit in which it was offered. Five weatherbeaten, frostbitten fists they were that grasped the pole, raised the waving flag in the air, and planted it as the first at the geographical South Pole. "Thus we plant thee, beloved flag, at the South Pole, and give to the plain on which it lies the name of King Haakon VII's Plateau." That moment will certainly be remembered by all of us who stood there.
Of course, there was a festivity in the tent that eveningnot that champagne corks were popping and wine flowingno, we contented ourselves with a little piece of seal meat each, and it tasted well and did us good. There was no other sign of festival indoors. Outside we heard the flag flapping in the breeze. Conversation was lively in the tent that evening, and we talked of many things.
More About This Resource...
This online article provides an eyewitness account from the first person to reach the South Pole. The journal excerpts, which appears as both a Web article and a printable PDF, include:
- Biographic information about Roald Amundsen, who explored both the Arctic and Antarctic.
- Diary excerpts from Amundsen's pioneering South Pole journey, which includes details about the harsh conditions his team endured.
- Details of the joy everyone experienced on arriving first at the South Pole and planting their flag.
Less than 1 period
Supplement a study of Antarctica with an activity drawn from this firsthand account of reaching the South Pole.
- Ask students to speculate about what it would take in 1911 to be the first person to reach the South Pole.
- Send students to this online article, or print copies of the essay for them to read.
- Have them write a one-page reaction to the article, discussing whether Amundsen's journey was harder or easier than they'd anticipated.