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American Museum Congo Expedition

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Overview

by Gordy Slack
A decade after Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness first depicted the mysteries and agonies of the area, Herbert Lang and James Chapin set sail for the northeastern Belgian Congo. They knew they were launching an extraordinary adventure, but they could not have imagined what those years would hold. By the time they sailed home five and a half years later, they had collected tons of precious zoological and anthropological specimens representing one of the most comprehensive collections of the day.

Departure
By the dawn of the twentieth century, the exploration of central Africa had become a Western obsession. Missionaries sought souls to convert. American reporter Henry Morton Stanley had penetrated the heart of Africa, looking for adventure and fame. Theodore Roosevelt launched expeditions into it, emerging with big-game trophies and incredible tales. Robber barons gutted parts of it, taking millions of African lives as they went. But to the natural science community, the Congo represented a different kind of prize. It was brimming with scientifically unexplored forms of life. On May 8, 1909, two young scientists left New York harbor for the West Coast of Africa. They had planned to be in the Congo for two years to collect as many animals and ethnographic objects as they could, and, specifically, to bring home examples of two large mammals: the okapi, a rare, short-necked forest giraffe discovered only a few years earlier--and the endangered square-lipped rhinoceros. Their plan would be amended again and again as two years turned to three, then four, then five.

Lang and Chapin
Herbert Lang was chosen to lead the expedition. He was a German taxidermist and photographer who had already assisted on an expedition to Kenya in 1906. That trip had ignited his interest in Africa, its people, and its wildlife. James Chapin, Lang's assistant, was a nineteen-year-old Columbia College student when they left for the Congo. By the time he returned to New York, he was a world authority on central African birds.

American Museum Congo Expedition team members: Herbert Lang Center and James Chapin on the right
American Museum Congo Expedition team members: Herbert Lang Center and James Chapin on the right, [1909]. AMNH Library Image No: ptc-5259

The Voyage
Nine days out of New York, they docked in Belgium then sailed another 19 days to Boma, a city near the mouth of the Congo River that was then the seat of the controversial Belgian colonial government. By rail and boat, they traveled a thousand miles up the Congo to Stanleyville and, with the help of hundreds of conscripted porters, walked through the dense rainforest to Avakubi then on to their base camp in Medje. Conditions were grueling. Their search for the reclusive okapi, for instance, took them to parts of the forest so swampy, hot, and dense that Lang called them "the most dismal spots on the face of the globe." But not a day passed without discovery of something new to them; not a week without something altogether new to science.

The Work
Lang and Chapin weren't the first scientists to explore the Congo's interior, but their expedition was different in key ways. For one, they spent longer there than other scientists had. And while others had concentrated on big game, Lang and Chapin collected everything from the smallest insects, rodents, and fishes, up to birds and giant mammals. They collected thousands of ants, which would become the primary material for William Morton Wheeler's definitive Ants of the American Museum Congo Expedition. The birds were Chapin's passion and he later published Birds of the Belgian Congo, a four-volume ornithological classic.

The Ituri Forest
Lang and Chapin rose before the sun to hunt for specimens. Through the hottest parts of the day they prepared their collections and took detailed notes. Chapin painted and sketched and Lang took photographs, frequently working half the night developing the film he had shot during the day. Lang and Chapin's vast array of ethnographic objects, photographs, and notes constitute one of the period's largest and most comprehensive anthropological collections from the Congo. Because Lang and Chapin were alone on the expedition, they relied heavily on Africans to help them gather specimens, as well as for transportation, provisions, and every other aspect of daily life. For example, Lang and King Okondo, an important Mangbetu chief, became friends and the scientists lived for months as guest's in Okondo's village. The brutal history of European exploitation must have colored these relationships, and we will never hear Okondo's perspective, let alone those of the porters and other assistants on the expedition, but the collections themselves suggest much collaboration between the visitors and their hosts.

Returning Home
By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Lang and Chapin had obtained good specimens of the okapi, the square-lipped rhino, and thousands of pounds of other collections. They hurried home, but taking the months necessary to pack and carry their cargo more than a thousand miles to the coast of Africa and to prepare it for the voyage back across the Atlantic. While Chapin and the collections traveled by way of England, running a German blockade of the Liverpool Harbor, Lang, a German national and officially an enemy of the US after the declaration of war, had to return to New York by way of Angola and Lisbon. Almost a century after the expedition, the collection remains an essential resource for scientists studying the cultures, biodiversity, and evolutionary significance of the area. The Expedition's most important contributions may be still to come; for understanding the diversity of an area as vast, rich, and complex as this one will be key to preserving its ecological integrity.

Multimedia Presentation
View an Introduction to the American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915) - a 5-minute slide presentation with narration about the Lang Chapin Congo Expedition.

American Museum Congo Expedition Inventory

This inventory provides an overview of the materials relating to the The American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915). Many of these materials are available digitally throughout this research guide. Others are available in the American Museum of Natural History Library or in various departments of the museum.

Download the Inventory

A. 1916 estimates of material collected by the Expedition:

  • Mammals: 5,800
  • Birds: 6,241
  • Reptiles & Batrachians: 4,800
  • Fishes: 5,400
  • Total of Vertebrates: 22,241
  • Invertebrates - land (including Entomology): 110,000
  • Molluscs: 8,000
  • Crustaceans: 4,000
  • (land and sea): 20,000
  • Myriapoda: 500
  • Arachnids: 5,000
  • Isoptera: 2,000
  • Coleoptera: 15,000
  • Hemiptera & Homoptera: 14,000
  • Hymenoptera: 20,000
  • Diptera: 8,000
  • Orthoptera: 1,500
  • Lepidoptera: 7,500
  • Ethnographical material: 3,800
  • Photographs (40 albums): 9,500

B. Materials summary:

  • 9000 black and white glass and safety negatives
  • 2 reels microfilm
  • 39 folders correspondence
  • 7 bound books (see bibliography)
  • 36 journal articles (see bibliography)
  • 29 manuscript notebooks, varying sizes, approx. 100 pages each: 7 are on microfilm, 11 Lang, 18 Chapin
  • 1 gazetteer, approx. 100 p.
  • audiotapes
  • transcripts of audiotapes
  • 98 watercolor sketches

C. Material in Library collections:
9,000 black and white negatives & prints: About 4680 are ethnology; about 4320 are zoology, botany and geography. Prints on file cards are stored in 35 Hollinger boxes; 6 large, 29 small. Average of 260 prints per box.

  • Primates
  • Fish
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Miscellaneous (large)
  • Aberambo, album 1
  • Azande: 4 boxes, albums 2 through 5
  • Bara and Baka, album 6
  • Logo: 2 boxes, albums 7 and 8
  • Makere (large), album 9
  • Mangbetu, album 10
  • Mangbetu & others, album 11
  • Mangbetu women, album 12
  • Mayoga and Matuki, album 13
  • Medje Balika and others, album 14
  • Mobali Babeyru and Bandoka, album 15
  • Mongelima, Popo, album 16
  • Pygmy: 2 boxes, album 17 and 18
  • Giant Eland, album 35
  • Large Mammals, album 2
  • Rhinoceros simus (large), album 3
  • Botany (large), albums 21 and 22
  • Botany, shore views and okapi habitat, album 23
  • General geography: 2 boxes, album 24 and 24a
  • Reptiles, album 28
  • Birds, album 29
  • Okapi (large), album 37
  • Antelopes (large), album 34
  • Photocopy of photo log (from Mammalogy): AMNH #'s 221000 - 227599
  • 355 b/w and hand-colored lantern slides: mostly ethnology
  • 133 4x5 color positive transparencies: including studio shots of anthropological artifacts shot for African Reflections
  • 136 35mm slides: (anthropological artifacts)
  • A collection of approx. 160 35mm slides: Special Collections Slide Box #19
  • Approx. 1,550 b/w glass plate stereo negatives
  • Approx. 1,000 stereo prints
  • 1 reel of microfilm, microfilmed document #43. Includes Lang's Mammalogy field notes: Small mammal catalog, specimen #'s 1-1920, Small mammal catalog, specimen #'s 1921-2628, Large mammal catalog, specimen #'s 1-639, Large mammal catalog, specimen #'s 640-1088, Large mammal catalog, specimen #'s 2500-2549, 1 notebook, Lang's expense record, small notebook, "Accessories for okapi group"
  • 3 boxes of documents relating to the expedition including autograph letters from Theodore Roosevelt
  • Correspondence 1918-1920: 7 folders, microfilm collection #144
  • Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition: Correspondence: 10 folders, mostly typed, some carbons, some handwriting: Annual Report, 1916 submitted 2/5/17, Lang-T. Roosevelt correspondence, Letters to Lang from Herman Bumpus, Letters May 8, 1909 to Nov. 12, 1915, "Plan of the Congo book" , Reports May 8, 1909 to Nov. 12, 1915 Folder I , Reports May 8, 1909 to Nov. 12, 1915 Folder II, Reports May 8, 1909 to Nov. 12, 1915 Folder III, Reports May 8, 1909 to Nov. 12, 1915 Folder IV
  • Map: (w/ Lang's handwriting)
  • AMNH Financial Records, Lang-Chapin, 1900-1920. Box 5: (Box 5 of 32) 8 folders, invoices, bills of lading, expenses. Most handwritten, much in French.

D. Materials in Scientific Collections
Anthropology

  • 3,865 Lang-Chapin artifacts
  • 3,865 Lang-Chapin catalog records
  • Some 4,000 King Leopold artifacts
  • Archive material
  • Correspondence(?)
  • 1 folder:"Plans of Okondo's house" text and sketches on cards, approx. 3x4" "Toy top" text (Chapin's handwriting) and sketch of artifact # 90.1/3290 ABC.
  • 3 notebooks: in one Hollinger box Cabinet 1, T2.
  • "Anthropology-Ethnology 1909-1912": 6x8" notebook, full. Lang's handwriting. Specimen numbers 1-1639.
  • 6x8" notebook:full, Lang's handwriting. Specimen numbers 1640-2366.
  • Smaller notebook: only 26 pages used, Lang's handwriting. Specimen number 2367-3758

Mammalogy:

  • 13 folders of Lang's correspondence: mostly typed
  • 7 notebooks, 5177 numbered descriptions of mammal specimens: handwritten and with AMNH Mammalogy numbers
  • Small mammal catalog 1-1920: (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • Small mammal catalog 1921-2628: (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • Large mammal catalog 1-639: (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • Large mammal catalog 640-1088: (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • Large mammal catalog 1087-1837: (not microfilmed)
  • Large mammal catalog 1838-2499: (not microfilmed)
  • Large mammal catalog 2500-2549: (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • 2 notebooks cataloging: "skins sent to J. Clark"
  • 1 catalog of photos taken, AMNH #'s 221000 - 227599: (photocopy in Special Collections)
  • 1 notebook, Lang's expense record: (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • 1 small notebook, "Accessories for okapi group": (also on microfilm, Special Collections #43)
  • 1 typescript with hand annotations "MSS on botany prepared about 1922 by Dr. Joseph Bequaert, intended to be part of an introductory volume to series of papers on results of the Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition…": Photocopy in Library.
  • 5177 specimens

Ichthyology:

  • 1452 "lot records"
  • 1 field notebook

Ornithology:

  • 6,241 bird specimens
  • 1 Hollinger box archive material: 8 6x8" notebooks: 6,241 numbered descriptions of bird specimens, handwritten 6 3x5" notebooks: daily journals 4 smaller notebooks: scribbled notes 1 folder correspondence, about 100 pages typed & handwritten (some overlap w/Library)
  • Manuscripts: "Birds of the Belgian Congo" 1922 typescript of Part I, 417 pages (carbon) Part II, 78 pages, bound Map gazetteer of Congo place names, 100 pages
  • audiotapes: reminiscences told to E. T. Gilliard
  • typed transcript of audiotaped reminiscences
  • 3 looseleaf binders of drawings, some of which may be Congo: Must be checked by date and/or location.
  • bound volumes of Chapin publications

Herpetology:

  • Lang's 1916 Annual Report: estimated 4,800 "Reptiles and Batrachians"
  • Between 4500 and 4700 data records in departmental database
  • 1 Hollinger box archive materials · 3 notebooks: "Reptiles & Batrachians" specimens 1-1233. Approx. 100 pages, 6x8", full. · "Reptiles & Batrachians 1911-1914" specimens 1233-3080. Approx 100 pp, 6x8", full. "Reptiles & Batrachians 1914" specimens 3081-3431. 5x7", about 1/3 full.
  • 1 folder, "Itinerary.": 2 leaves, legal size. Copy in Library, original in Herpetology

Invertebrates:

  • 632 cataloged lots of specimens: encompassing 3-4,000 specimens (non-molluscs)
  • 632 catalog records: some in a database, all on cards

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AMNH Resources

Museum Authorities

Archives authorities provide valuable information about an entity’s background and history. This context helps place related archival material within a historical framework through the descriptions of its primary creators.

Electronic Publications

Publications of the American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915)

Field Books

Anthropology

Herpetology

Ichthyology

Mammalogy

Ornithology

James Chapin Diaries

Print Publications

Images

Photographic Collection - Research Library Special Collections
Field photographs taken during the American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915) in the Research Library Special Collections.

Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition (1909-1915) - Division of Anthropology
Photographs of objects and field photographs from the American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915) in the Division of Anthropology Collections.

Congo Expedition Itinerary

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External Resources

CIA World Factbook - A site created by the Central Intelligence Agency with brief overview and facts of world countries, including Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo.

Congo Daily - A daily news source and part of the World News Network offering current news about the region.

Convention on Biological Diversity for Democratic Republic of the Congo - The Convention on Biological Diversity website for the "Clearing-House Mechanism of Democratic Republic of the Congo".

Democratic Republic of Congo - The United Nations site for the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Bibliography

Annotated bibliography by Paula Willey, 1999

Download the bibliography

Maps and Atlases

  • Congo Free State, attributed to but almost certainly not drawn by Henry Morton Stanley. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1885. This early and large map, most likely cut out of Stanley's 1885 publication The Congo and the founding of its Free State; a story of work and exploration, is extremely detailed along the Atlantic Coast and along the Congo River, east of Lake Tanganyika and around Lake Victoria, but completely empty for hundreds of miles north and south of the River in the center of the country, where the rain forest is dense. The map is a good visual representation of the scope of exploration in the Congo as of about 1880.
  • Carte de l'Etat indépendant du Congo par J. duFief, Secrétaire-général de la Société royale belge géographiqe. Bruxelles, 1895. This enormous map (more than four feet square) is drawn at an incredible scale: 31 miles to one inch. In 1895, only limited areas of the Congo had been explored, hence, there's a lot of empty space in this beautiful map. One can imagine how exciting such a map must have been in 1908 to a young man about to set sail.
  • Carte de l'Etat indépendant du Congo. Bruxelles. 1898.
  • Carte de l'Etat indépendant du Congo. Bruxelles. 1907. The 1898 and 1907 versions of the same map are smaller in scale, and begin to show administrative divisions and topographic detail. The 1898 version has routes of exploration (such as "Livingstone 1870") and major battles indicated, and the 1907 version shows missions, administrative posts, and the few railroads that had been constructed around the Congo River rapids. The 1907 version also shows that the bordering territories have been partitioned by the European powers. Such areas as French Congo and German East Africa are noted on the map.
  • Petit atlas du Congo belge. Bruxelles: A. de Boeck, [1912?]. 32 [i.e. 64] p.: ill., maps (16 col.); 21 cm. Consists of 32 p. of text and 16 folded maps printed on verso of unnumbered pages and on recto of numbered pages. A very comprehensive little atlas, it includes ethnographic, economic, and political color maps of the country, as well as a color map of each province and a detail map of the area around the mouth of the river. Also included are charts and graphs measuring the Congo's climate, language, watershed, river output, geology, population, land disposition, etc.

Serials and Monographs: History

  • Lopes, Duarte. A report of the Kingdom of Congo and of the surrounding countries; drawn out of the writings and discourses of the Portuguese, Duarte Lopez, by Filippo Pigafetta, in Rome, 1591. Newly translated from the Italian, and edited with explanatory notes, by Margarite Hutchinson. With facsims. of the original maps, and a pref. by Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. New York, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. xxi, 174 p. 2 fold. maps. 24 cm. Reprint of the 1881 ed. Translation of Relatione del reame di Congo. "The cartography of Africa from 1492 to 1600, as illustrative of the nomenclature of the Congo:" p. 140-145. "Bibliographical note upon the 16th century editions of Pigafetta:" p. 145-148.
  • Proyart, abbe, 1743?-1808. Histoire de Loango, Kakongo, et autres royaumes d'Afrique; rédigée d'après les mémoires des préfets apostoliques de la mission francoise; enrichie d'une carte utile aux navigateurs: dédiée à monsieur. Paris, C.P. Berton, 1776. viii, 390, [3] p. fold. map. 17 cm.
  • Tuckey, James Hingston, 1776-1816. Narrative of an expedition to explore the river Zaire, usually called the Congo in South Africa in 1816, under the direction of Captain J.K. Tuckey, R.N., to which is added the journal of Professor Smith and some general observations on the country and its inhabitants. New-York: W.B. Wiley, 1818. lxxxii, 410 p., 4 leaves of plates, ill., maps. Columbia University library holds an original copy of this book, and it was microfilmed as part of the library's Early American imprints series. Ask for no. 45905.

Serials and Monographs: Description and Travel

  • Bailey, Henry. Travel and adventures in the Congo Free State and its big game shooting, by Bula N'Zau [pseud.]. Illustrated from the author's sketches, with map. London: Chapman & Hall, 1894. xiv, 335 p. illus., map (fold.) 23 cm. Introduction signed: Henry Bailey.
  • Bentley, William Holman, 1855-1905. Life on the Congo. London: Religious Tract Society, 1893. 128 p. illus. 19 cm. Bentley relates his life as a missionary on the Congo River in this relatively early descriptive work.
  • Burrows, Guy. The land of the pigmies. With introduction by H.M. Stanley, M.P. with illustrations from photographs and sketches by the author. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Company, [1898]. xxx, 3-299, [1] plate (front.): ill., ports.; 24 cm. See below under "Politics" for a discussion of Guy Burrows.
  • Hertogh, A. de. Le Congo belge; notre colonie. Bruxelles: A. de Boeck, 1910. 143 p. illus., music, ports. This oversize picture book has terrific photographs of the terrain and peoples of the Congo. It must have been irresistible to young James Chapin. Notable are pictures of people tapping wild rubber vines and lining up with their baskets of rubber. The people of the Congo were taxed by Leopold's government, and paid these taxes with such baskets of rubber. By most accounts, it took approximately twenty days each month to gather enough rubber to pay one family's taxes.
  • Jephson, A. J. Mounteney. Emin Pasha and the rebellion at the equator; a story of nine months' experience in the last of the Soudan provinces. With the revision and cooperation of Henry M. Stanley. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, [c1890]. xxiv, 490 p. front., illus., plates, ports., plan, fold. map, facsim. 23 cm.
  • Johnson, T. Broadwood. Tramps round the Mountains of the Moon and through the back gate of the Congo State. London: T. F. Unwin, 1908. xxiii, 316 p. front., illus., 31 pl., map. 21 cm. Typical of the adventure travel books written about the Congo at the time; the cover of this book shows turbanned and fezzed men proudly displaying a haul of ivory; ivory was the first massively exploited natural resource of the Congo.
  • Stanley, Henry M. How I found Livingstone: travels, adventures and discoveries in Central Africa: including an account of four months' residence with Dr. Livingstone. With maps and illustrations after drawings by the author. New York: Scribner, Armstrong & Co., 1872. xxiii, 736 p. illus., maps, fold. plan. 23 cm.
  • Stanley, Henry M. Through the Dark continent: or, The sources of the Nile around the great lakes of equatorial Africa, and down the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean. With ten maps and one hundred and fifty woodcuts. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1878. 2 v. illus., maps, plates, ports. 23 cm.
  • Stanley, Henry M. The Congo and the founding of its free state; a story of work and exploration. With over one hundred full-page and smaller illustrations, two large maps, and several smaller ones. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1885. 2 v. fronts., illus., plates, ports., maps (part fold.) plan. 23 cm.
  • Stanley, Henry M. In darkest Africa: or, The quest, rescue and retreat of Emin, governor of Equatoria ... With one hundred and fifty woodcut illustrations and maps. New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1890. 2 v. front., illus., plates, ports, maps. (part col.), 23 cm. Stanley, Henry M. The autobiography of Sir Henry Morton Stanley. Edited by his wife, Dorothy Stanley. Boston: Houghton Mifflin [1909]. 551 p. illus., facsim., folded map., ports. Stanley seems to have been a cruel and conflicted man. His many biographies cite numerous lies he told about himself and his background, chief among them, that he was an American (he was born in Wales and raised in a workhouse) and that his name was Henry Morton Stanley (he was born John Rowlands). An opportunist of the highest order, he was a journalist when he first went to Africa, to find David Livingstone. Every time he returned from the Congo, he wrote a two-volume book, in which he depicts himself as revered by the natives, admired by his men, intrepid and compassionate. Books and diaries written by men who served under him on these expeditions, and even his own letters and journals, often contradicted this depiction, casting Stanley as a ruthless bully who used men like tools. During his last large expedition, he looted and burned villages and killed the Congolese without thought. One of his officers packed the severed head of an African in a box of salt and sent it to a taxidermist in London (Hochschild p. 99).
  • Ward, Herbert. Five years with the Congo cannibals. London: Chatto & Windus, 1891. xv, 308 p. ill. 25 cm. Typical of the era, this book is heavily illustrated and larded with anecdotes about "funny" native practices, run-ins with big game, and description of flora. In books such as this one, the authors try to be objective observers - they attempt to be neither patronizing nor critical, but merely to document the oral traditions, rituals, and daily life of a "primitive" culture. These books seem to us, in 1999, to be both patronizing and critical, but it is unkind to judge these writers too harshly. It is very difficult to maintain objectivity when observing other human beings, and it was obviously more so "back then," when the world was smaller.

Serials and Monographs: Politics

  • Aborigines Protection Society. The treatment of natives in the Congo; a statement submitted to His Majesty's government on behalf of the Aborigines Protection Society. [London, 1902]. 10 l. 34 cm. H. R. Fox Bourne, secretary of the Aborigines Protection Society and the writer of this document, was a knowledgeable and highly-respected opponent of Leopold's. A historian and essayist, he wrote articles on the Congo for the Times in London.
  • Burrows, Guy and Edgar Canisius. The curse of Central Africa. With which is incorporated A campaign amongst cannibals by Edgar Canisius ... With coloured map and numerous illustrations from unique and valuable photographs taken by the author and others. London, R. A. Everett & co., ltd., 1903. xxviii, [10], 276 p., 1 ., viii p., 1 ., [8] p. incl. front., illus., ports. plates, fold. map. 26 cm. Burrows had worked for Henry Morton Stanley, and wrote an adventure travel book called In the land of the Pigmies, to which Stanley had written the introduction. He, like many other former soldiers, was later made an official of the Congo Free State. Edgar Canisius was a soldier in the Force Publique. This book, which criticizes the King and his agents in no uncertain terms, is an insider's - indeed, an administrator's - view of the mistreatment of the Congo natives. Canisius described a six-week campaign that he participated in during which his unit killed 900 Congolese. When this book came out it, especially Canisius's testimony, was quoted in all the newspapers and referred to in official documents and in speeches made by members of the Congo Reform Movement.
  • Congo Reform Association. Will civilisation hearken? The appeal of fifty-two pioneers of Christianity on the Congo, comprising Englishmen, Canadians, Americans, Germans, Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians. Liverpool: John Richardson & Sons, Printers, 1906. 8 p. Prefatory material by E.D. Morel. The Congo Reform Association was modeled on the organizations of the Abolitionist movement. National chapters were formed in England, the United States, and several European countries, especially the Scandinavian countries. The national chapters were broken down into local chapters, facilitating grass-roots and direct action advocacy. Some of these local chapters held meetings that attracted up to 5,000 people, often with prominent clergymen, members of Parliament, Congressmen, Peers of the Realm, and other celebrities sharing the dais. These celebrities also lent their names to the C.R.A.'s petitions and fund-raising campaigns, in some cases publishing pamphlets of their own (see Twain and Doyle, below). The Association published heavily and lobbied the United States and English governments, agitating for U.S.-British intervention on behalf of the Congolese.
  • Doyle, Arthur Conan, Sir, 1859-1930. The crime of the Congo. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, c1909. 128 p. 21 cm.
  • Morel, E. D. The Congo slave state: a protest against the new African slavery; and an appeal to the public of Great Britain, of the United States, and of the continent of Europe. Liverpool: J. Richardson & Sons, Printers, 1903. 112 p. illus. (maps) 25 cm.
  • Morel, E. D. King Leopold's rule in Africa. London: W. Heinemann, 1904. xxiv, 466 p. front., plates, ports., 2 maps (1 fold.) 23 cm.
  • Morel, E. D. Red rubber; the story of the rubber slave trade flourishing on the Congo in the year of grace 1906. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1906. 213 p. Also published in New York by The Nassau Print. Morel, the leader of the Congo Reform Movement, was an amazingly prolific writer. He put out a monthly magazine, a weekly newspaper, and usually wrote one or two books a year, as well as innumerable pamphlets, speeches, and letters to the editor. His correspondence is reportedly massive. In 1904 or 1905, Morel met a missionary named Alice Seeley Harris, whose photographs Morel published in his books and projected (as lantern slides) in his lectures. These photographs are now held in the archives of the Anti-Slavery League in London. One might expect the New York Public Library to hold copies of some of these widely printed photos (some were also published in Mark Twain's King Leopold's soliloquy, for example), but such is not the case.
  • Sheppard, William Henry. Presbyterian pioneers in Congo; introduction by S.H. Chester. Kentucky: Pentecostal Publishing Company, 1900. 157 p. : ill. ; 18 cm. Sheppard was among the many Presbyterian missionaries in the Congo who became politicized because of the atrocities that they witnessed. Sheppard's unique perspective, however, is that he was black. This book, and the many pamphlets and open letters that he later wrote, incorporate a sensitivity to the rights of the Congo natives absent in even the most vociferous white Congo reform writers.
  • Starr, Frederick. The truth about the Congo; the Chicago tribune articles. Chicago: Forbes & company, 1907. viii, 129 p., plates. 20 cm. Starr wrote 15 articles for the Chicago Tribune, reprinted here in book form, refuting charges against King Leopold, the Force Publique, and the rubber companies. Starr, an anthropologist who believed in the inferiority of "primitive" peoples, gained his knowledge about the Congo after a year-long tour of the country paid for by the King of the Belgians.
  • Twain, Mark. King Leopold's soliloquy: a defense of his Congo rule. Mass.: P.R. Warren Co., 1905. Edition 2nd ed. 56 p., [7] leaves of plates: ill.; 19 cm. "The publishers desire to state that ... it is [Mr. Clemens's] wish that all proceeds of sales ... shall be used in furthering effort for relief of the people of the Congo State. Boston, Mass., Jan. 1, 1906"--Label mounted on half-title p. The AMNH copy of this small book is housed with a letter from the Congo Reform Association exhorting the reader to take specific advocacy steps on behalf of the Congolese, such as organizing meetings and writing letters to Congressmen. 
  • United States. Dept. of State. Conditions in the independent state of the Kongo. [Washington, 1906-08?]. 4 v. in 1. 34 cm. This is a collection of State Department documents bound together in chronological order. It includes eyewitness reports of the practices of the rubber companies, correspondence between the British Foreign Office and the State Department, and reports of the American consul-general in the Congo. It is a revealing look at the diplomatic pressures that the United States and Britain brought to bear on King Leopold and the Belgians.
  • Herausgegeben, eingeleitet und kommentiert von Rold Italiaander. Konig Leopolds Kongo, Dokumente und Pamphlete von Mark Twain, Edmund D. Morel, Roger Casement. Rutten + Loening Verlag Munchen, 1964.

Serials and Monographs: Science

  • Guide de la section de l'Etat indépendant du Congo à l'Exposition de Bruxelles-Tervueren en 1897. Ouvrage publié sous la direction de M. le commandant Liebrechts par les soins du lieutenant Th. Masui; illustrations d'Amédée Lynen; cartes déssinées par Emile Mieroo; portraits de Blanc et Geruzet. Bruxelles: Imprimerie Veuve Monnom, 1897. xiv, 523 p., [3] leaves of plates (some folded): ill. (some col.); 26 cm. From the title of this little book, it would appear that the Congo exhibit was but a part of the 1897 Brussels-Tervueren International Exposition. However, there are no other publications associated with the exposition, and no references to any but the Congo exhibit, so it seems that perhaps the Exposition was devoted wholly to the natural history, ethnology, industries, and description of the Congo.
  • Cornet, René Jules. Katanga; Le Katanga avant les Belges, et l'Expédition Bia -Francqui-Cornet. Bruxelles: Editions L. Cuypers, 1946. Edition 3. ed. revue et augmentee. 392 p. ill., maps, ports., plan, facsims. 23 cm. "Prix Foa de la Société de géographie de Paris (1945)".
  • Donny, Albert. Manuel du voyageur et du résident au Congo, rédigé sous la direction du général Donny. Bruxelles: Hayez, 1900-01. 3 v. illus. 25 cm.
  • Dutton, Joseph Everett and John Launcelot Todd. The nature of human tick-fever in the eastern part of the Congo free-state. London: Pub. for the University press of Liverpool by Williams& Norgate, 1905. 4 p.l., 26 p. iv pl., fold. map, diagrs. 28 cm. Tick fever, sleeping sickness, and other relapsing illnesses were often blamed by the Congo government for the high death rate among Congolese natives. In fact, European and American visitors to the Congo died of these fevers at an alarming rate.
  • Frobenius, Leo, 1873-1938. Im Schatten des Kongostaates; Bericht uber den Verlauf der ersten Reisen der D. I. A. F. E. von 1904-1906, uber deren forschungen und Beobachtungen auf geographischem und Kolonialwirtschaftlichem Gebiet, mit 8 Kartenblattern, 33 Tafeln und ca. 318 Illustrationen und Gelandedarstellungen im Text; hrsg. und bearb. von Leo Frobenius. Berlin: G. Reimer, 1907. xiv, 468 p. illus., 33 pl. (partly col.) 8 maps (partly fold.) 27 cm. (Deutsche inner Afrikanische forschungs Expedition. Publikation, 1). Though Frobenius published many more scholarly works on the anthropology of African peoples, this largely descriptive work covers his 1904-1906 expedition to the Congo. Page 295 includes an illustration of a black man being whipped with the infamous chicotte, a twisted whip made of hippopotamus hide.
  • Halkin, Joseph. Quelques peuplades du district de l'Uélé, état independant du Congo; monographies ethnographiques. Fascicule 1, Les Ababua. Liege, D. Cormaux, 1907. Halkin's monograph on the people of the Uele district of the Congo would have been especially interesting to Lang, who was planning to focus his expedition on the northeastern areas of the Congo.
  • Lemaire, Charles Francois Alexandre. Tra Mez-Afriko. A travers l'Afrique centrale. Parolado kun projekcioj donita al la dua Universala kongreso d'Esperanto, en Genevo, je la sabato la de septembro 1906a, conférence avec projections donnée au 2me Congrès universel d'Esperanto, à Genève, le samedi 1er septembre 1906. [Bruges, Impr. scientifique A. J. Witteryck, 1907?]. 85p. illus., ports., map. 28 cm. French (printed in black) and Esperanto (printed in green) on opposite pages. In the Mrs. Dave H. Morris Collection.
  • Lemaire, Charles Francois Alexandre. Congo--vocabulaire pratique: français, anglais, zanzibarite (swahili), fiote, kibangi-irebou, mongo, bangala. Bruxelles: Impr. Scientifique Ch. Bulens, 1897. 47 p.; 27 cm. Microfilm. New York: New York Public Library, 1981. 1 reel; 35 mm.
  • Lemaire, Charles Francois Alexandre.. Mission scientifique du Ka-Tanga; résultats des observations astronomiques, magnétiques et altimétriques effectuées sur le territoire de l'Etat indépendant du Congo. [Bruxelles, 1901-08]. 17 v. in 6. illus. 33 cm. (Publications de l'Etat indépendant du Congo 17).
  • Lemaire, Charles Francois Alexandre. Mission scientifique Congo-Nil; résultats des observations astronomiques, magnétiques et altimétriques effectuées sur le territoire de l'Etat indépendant du Congo, du vendredi 5 septembre 1902 au vendredi 14 avril 1905. Avec une carte au millionième ... [Bruxelles, C. Bulens, 1906?]. vi, iii, ii, 53 p. incl. tables. 30 cm. (Publications de l'Etat independant du Congo.) LeMaire, an officer of the Force Publique who fancied himself a scientist, kept a diary while he was in the Congo. This diary was published in 1986, prompting speculation that LeMaire was the model for Joseph Conrad's sadistic Colonel Kurtz. The diary reveals LeMaire's leadership in the murder and maiming of large numbers of Congolese natives by men under his command. He was also a staunch promoter of Esperanto, and at least one of his publications, Tra Mez-Afriko, a pamphlet published on the occasion of the 2nd Congress of Esperantists, is printed in both French and Esperanto, with the French in black on the left-hand page, and Esperanto in green on the right-hand page. Regardless of his administrative policies and linguistic abilities, however, his work was not apparently up to the American Museum's standard - none of his publications appear in that library.
  • Overbergh, Cyrille van. Les Mangbetu (Congo belge). Bruxelles, A. de Wit, 1909. xvi, 594 p., [4] leaves of plates illus., fold. map. 26 cm. (Collection de monographies ethnographiques, 4.) The American Museum Congo Expedition paid special attention to the Mangbetu, whose art captured the imagination of Europe as soon as examples of it were brought out of the forest. The Mangbetu had a complex social system and were quite wealthy, with large structures, highly developed art, and elaborate personal ornamentation including tattoos, body paint, body modification (pointed skulls), scarification and hairstyles.
  • Piaggia, Carlo. Nella terra dei niam-niam (1863-1865): da i Viaggi di Carlo Piaggia nell'Africa centrale. [Lucca]: M. Pacini Fazzi, 1978. Not published until 1978, Piaggia's diaries recount his year and a half among the Azande (sometime after 1860). During his time in northeast Congo, Piaggia traveled extensively, learned the Azande language, and developed a high opinion of his hosts, along with what would now be called liberal views on the effect of colonialism on the Congolese.
  • Poskin, A. L'Afrique équatoriale; climatologie, nosologie, hygiène. Avec de nombreuses figures et diagrammes et une carte du bassin du Congo. Bruxelles: Société belge de librairie [1897]. ix, 478 p. illus.
  • Schweinfurth, George August. The heart of Africa: three years' travels and adventures in the unexplored regions of Central Africa from 1868 to 1871. London: S. Low, Marston, Low, and Searle, 1873. 2 vol., illustrated, with maps.
  • Starr, Frederick. A bibliography of Congo languages. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1908. 97 p. front., plates, ports., facsims. (University of Chicago Dept. of Anthropology bulletin, 5). "Practically all the titles in our list represent the Bantu languages." 678 titles of which 391, marked with an asterisk (*), belonging to the author were (with exception of 17 missing and 13 retained by Mr. Starr) purchased by Harvard University Library in 1929. The purchase included also 11 titles not marked with an asterisk. See note on Starr under "Politics".
  • Thonner, Franz. Im Afrikanischen Urwald; meine Reise nach dem Kongo und der Mongalla im Jahre 1896. Berlin: Reimer, 1898. 116 p. illus. Thonner studied the botany of the Congo, and this book, part travelogue, part field guide to plants, was almost certainly read by Herbert Lang.
  • Wildeman, E. de. Mission Emile Laurent (1903-1904). Bruxelles: Imp. F. Vanbuggenhoudt, 1905-07. 2 v. illus., CLXXXV pl., port., map. 29 cm.

Serials and Monographs: Materials relating to Joseph Conrad

  • Conrad, Joseph. Youth and two other stories. New York: McClure, Phillips, 1903. 381 p. 20 cm.
  • Quinn, John. Papers, 1901-1926. Originals: 46 linear feet (72 boxes, 41 letterbooks, 3 v.). General correspondence: 50 microfilm reels. Finding aid available in repository. Manuscripts & Archives Section, NYPL. John Quinn was a corporate lawyer in New York City who collected manuscripts and art. His correspondence, 1901-1924, is with artists, art dealers, critics, poets, playwrights, booksellers, publishers, and members of his family. He had special interest in modern and avant-garde art, modern literature, and the Irish Home Rule Movement. His correspondents include Constantine Brancusi, William Butler Yeats, Marcel Duchamp, James Joyce, and Ezra Pound, among very many others. He carried on a correspondence with Sir Roger Casement, the traitorous English peer and Congo hero, during the latter's (largely unsuccessful) fundraising tour of America in the last years of his life. The letter from Joseph Conrad responding to Quinn's questions about Casement is included here; the Casement section begins on the leaf labeled "II."

Newspaper Headlines, 1880-1916
Compiled from the indexes of the New York Times and the New York Herald and from an unpublished NYPL clipping scrapbook on France, 1879-1890. The Times has a complete printed index, but the Herald's index starts only at 1904. Prior to 1904, the NYPL librarians indexed the newspaper themselves, in handwritten ledgers arranged alphabetically by subject. These indexes are available in the Microform Room, but not all librarians know about the handwritten Herald index. While this list looks very dense, even a quick skim will reveal the pattern of the Congo's history and public opinion about the Congo - first its "exploration" by Stanley and DeBrazza, then the European scramble for ownership and trade rights, and then the 1900-1901 revelations of the atrocities committed by the rubber companies, the Congo Reform movement, and the 1908 annexation of the Congo Free State by Belgium. The American Museum Congo Expedition is mentioned twice in the New York Times, once in 1909 and once in 1916.

1880

  • Mr. H. M. Stanley on the Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 29.
  • African Exploration. New York Herald. Nov 3.
  • Mr. Stanley's African road (slavery). New York Herald.
  • France on the Congo. New York Herald.

1882

  • Rivals on Congo. New York Herald. Oct 19.
  • Stanley & DeBrazza. New York Herald. Oct 20.
  • Stanley in Africa. New York Herald. Oct. 30.
  • On the Congo, with 2 maps. New York Herald. Oct. 30.
  • Affray on the Congo. New York Herald.
  • M. DeBrazza's treaties. New York Herald.
  • Brazza sustained. New York Herald.
  • France and the Congo. New York Herald.
  • France on the Congo. New York Herald.

1883

  • Stanley & DeBrazza. New York Herald. Jan. 11.
  • France & Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 28.
  • On the Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 15.
  • France on Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 18.
  • Stanley, with map and picture. New York Herald. Aug. 20.
  • On the Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 2.
  • Stanley in Africa. New York Herald. Sept. 3.
  • The Congo, with map. New York Herald. Sept. 27.
  • King Stanley in Africa. Philadelphia Times. Oct. 9.
  • Stanley in Africa. Philadelphia Times. Oct. 13.
  • A great subject, with map. New York Herald. Dec. 30.

1884

  • International Protection of the Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 21.
  • The Congo question. New York Herald.
  • Congress and the Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 22.
  • Opening the Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 23.
  • DeBrazza on the Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 7.
  • DeBrazza's failure. New York Herald. Feb. 7.
  • The Congo country. New York Herald. Feb. 9.
  • The Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 16.
  • Fight on the Congo. New York Herald. Feb 20.
  • Phonographs for Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 26.
  • The Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 31.
  • Congo politics. New York Herald. Apr. 1.
  • Central Africa. New York Herald. Apr. 1.
  • England and the Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 2.
  • The Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 3.
  • The Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 9.
  • General Washington Despatches - news from Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 9.
  • Recognition of International African Association. New York Herald. Apr. 11.
  • The Congo treaty. New York Herald. Apr. 14.
  • Stanley's new plan. New York Herald. Apr. 17.
  • Trade of the Congo. New York Herald. Apr 18.
  • More Congo treaties. New York Herald. Apr. 22.
  • The Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 23.
  • Stanley's explorations. New York Herald. Apr. 24.
  • Portugal and the Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 30.
  • The powers and the Congo. New York Herald. May 3.
  • The Congo treaty. New York Herald. May 7.
  • Congo politics. New York Herald. May 8.
  • The Congo treaty. New York Herald. May 9.
  • Africa & Europeans. New York Herald. May 14. Germany and the Congo. New York Herald. May 16.
  • Congo treaty. New York Herald. May 17.
  • The right to the Congo. New York Herald. May 21.
  • London Times questions legal position of African Association. New York Herald. May 21. P. 7, Column 3.
  • German colonial Assn. endorses Bismarck. New York Herald. May 23. p. 7, Column 3.
  • Germany and the Congo. New York Herald. May 23.
  • Germany & Africa. New York Herald. May 30.
  • The Congo treaty. New York Herald. June 1.
  • International African Assn's declaration of its rights. New York Herald. June 10. p. 7, Column 2.
  • Braconnier's story of Stanley's work on the Congo (slavery). New York Herald. June 16. p. 4, Column 1.
  • Congo Land. New York Herald. June 16.
  • Congo Assn's overtures to Germany. New York Herald. June 17. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Portugal's claims to Congo. New York Herald. June 17. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Portuguese policy on Congo. New York Herald. June 19. p. 7, col. 2.
  • A Free State to be farmed. New York Herald. June 20. p. 5, col. 3.
  • M. De Brazza. New York Herald. June 20.
  • Stanley and the Congo. New York Herald. June 21.
  • Stanley and DeBrazza. New York Herald. June 21.
  • Congo navigation to be free. New York Herald. June 22. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Sanford interviewed on the Congo Free State and on Stanley. New York Herald. June 25. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Fitzmaurice on Congo and Portuguese. New York Herald. June 27. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Portuguese treaty as to Congo. New York Herald. June 28. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Stanley's return. New York Herald. June 29.
  • Portuguese annul Stanley's treaties and he leaves. New York Herald. July 6. p 11 col 1.
  • French fight with Pollock's force. New York Herald. July 11. p. 7, col. 2.
  • France's agreement as to Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 1. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Stanley on German colonization of Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 5. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Portuguese aggressions. New York Herald. Aug. 5. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Stanley's suggestion as to Congo and France. New York Herald. Aug. 6. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Portugal's claim to Congo country. New York Herald. Aug. 10. p. 11, col. 4.
  • H. H. Johnston's book on Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 10. p. 17, col. 4.
  • Count Pourtales enters service, Congo Assn.. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 11, col. 4.
  • W. P. Pisdel appted, U.S. ___ to Congo, with sketch of T.. New York Herald. Aug. 23. p. 8, col. 1.
  • Stanley's advice to Germany as to Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 26. p. 5, col. 4.
  • King of the Congo protests. New York Herald. Aug. 27. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Bismarck and a proposed conference. New York Herald. Sept. 2. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Stanley and DeBrazza statements as to Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 7. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Bismarck's plan for government of the Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 7. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Prince Bismarck and the Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 8. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Stanley's lecture on the Congo country. New York Herald. Sept. 19. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Rhuis interviewed on behalf of DeBrazza re: Congo question. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 5, col. 1.
  • International Commission proposed on Congo question. New York Herald. Oct. 9. p. 7, col. 2.
  • African Association's new Congo expedition. New York Herald. Oct. 10. p. 5, col. 3.
  • International conference called on Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 11. p. 5, col. 2.
  • France opposes Congo Conference. New York Herald. Oct. 12. p. 13, col. 2.
  • Congo conference programme. New York Herald. Oct. 14. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Proposals as to the Congo conference. New York Herald. Oct. 15. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Delizies's expedition to Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 19. p. 13, col. 2.
  • England to join Congo conference. New York Herald. Oct. 21. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Stanley and Balley on limits of Congo territory. New York Herald. Oct. 21. p. 7, col. 1.
  • England to join Congo conference. New York Herald. Oct. 22. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Suggestions as to Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 26. p. 13, col. 4.
  • Turkey asks admission to Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 3. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Portugal's claims on the lower Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 5. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Baptist mission steamer on Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 5. p. 4, col. 4.
  • Bismarck's scheme as to the Congo country. New York Herald. Nov. 7. p. 5, col. 2.
  • DeBrazza secures an important concession. New York Herald. Nov. 9. p. 11, col. 3.
  • The climate of the lower Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 13. p. 4, col. 3.
  • The aim of the Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 14. p. 4, col. 4.
  • Berlin Congo conference opens. New York Herald. Nov. 16. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Bismarck opens the Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 17. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Bismarck's opening speech at Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 18. p. 5, col. 3.
  • General Sandford made delegate to Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 20. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Correspondence between Bismarck and Granville as to the Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 21. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Stanley and the Portuguese claims. New York Herald. Nov. 22. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Germany's proposals as to Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 23. p. 11, col. 2.
  • England's claims not endorsed in Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 25. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Free trade agreed on. New York Herald. Nov. 25. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Conference defines limits of Congo basin. New York Herald. Nov. 26. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Natives hostile to Europeans on Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 27. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Report of Congo conference. New York Herald. Nov. 28. p. 5, col. 2.
  • General Sandford's Congo railway project. New York Herald. Nov. 30. p. 13, col. 2.
  • Denial of war on Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 30. p. 13, col. 2.
  • Elias to be second in command. New York Herald. Nov. 30. p. 13, col. 2.
  • Turkey's interests on the Congo Constantinople Corr. New York Herald. Dec. 1. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Conference decides upon free trade. New York Herald. Dec. 1. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Le Figaro on poor results to France. New York Herald. Dec. 3. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Assn's connection with Germany. New York Herald. Dec. 3. p. 7, col. 2.
  • History of missionary efforts on Congo and Bishop Taylor's appeal. New York Herald. Dec. 8. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Kasson's neutrality scheme for Congo basin. New York Herald. Dec. 8. p. 5, col. 1.
  • General Sandford's railway scheme for Congo. New York Herald. Dec 8. p 5 col 1.
  • General Sandford's railway scheme for Congo attacked. New York Herald. Dec. 9. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Bismarck's real object as to Congo conference, Special Corr.. New York Herald. Dec. 10. p. 5, col. 1.
  • General Sandford presents railway scheme to Congo conference. New York Herald. Dec. 10. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Kasson's neutrality proposal. New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Amer, neutrality scheme for Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 5, col. 2.
  • General Sandford's railway scheme for Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Kasson's proposal as to Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 13. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Congo railway scheme shelved. New York Herald. Dec. 16. p. 7, col. 1.
  • American neutrality scheme favored for Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 17. p. 7, col. 1.
  • English treaty signed recognizing Congo Assn.. New York Herald. Dec 18 p 5 col 2.
  • Congo Assn desires British officers. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Liquor question debated. New York Herald. Dec. 20. p. 5, col. 2.
  • France's secret overtures. New York Herald. Dec. 20. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Portugal defines her boundary. New York Herald. Dec. 20. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Arthengton's Congo mission contribution. New York Herald. Dec. 21. p. 13, col. 3.
  • Germany vs. France on neutralization. New York Herald. Dec. 22. p. 5, col. 1.
  • President Arthur on the rights of U.S. in Congo country. New York Herald. Dec. 23. p. 3, col. 1.
  • Italian slave trade proposal. New York Herald. Dec. 23. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Morgan(?), U.S. Senator interviewed on U.S. in Congo conference. New York Herald. Dec. 23. p. 3, col. 1.
  • The U.S. and evil results of Congo conference. New York Herald. Dec. 24. p. 4, col. 2.
  • American neutrality scheme shelved. New York Herald. Dec. 24. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Journal des Debats on Congo neutral proposition. New York Herald. Dec. 27. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Journal des Debats on Congo and the Monroe Doctrine. New York Herald. Dec. 28. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Impending conflict between Congo Assn and French. New York Herald. Dec. 29. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Congo country to be made a monarchy. New York Herald. Dec. 30. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Bismarck on international protectorate. New York Herald. Dec. 30. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Holland recognizes Congo Assn.. New York Herald. Dec. 31. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Hamel's imprisonment by the French. New York Herald. Dec. 31. p. 5, col. 3.

1885

  • Hamel released Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 1. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Herbert and Belmont's resol(?) inquiry, U.S. at Congo conference. New York Herald. Jan. 6. p. 4, col. 2.
  • American war vessels sent to Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 6. p. 7, col. 2.
  • German expedition given up. New York Herald. Jan. 6. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Ferry declines to recognize Congo Assn's rights. New York Herald. Jan. 6. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Italian expedition to Congo, nature of. New York Herald. Jan. 6. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Spain signs Congo convention. New York Herald. Jan. 8. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Protocol. 39 Congo summary. New York Herald. Jan. 8. p. 5, col. 2.
  • U.S. disavows responsibility. New York Herald. Jan. 10. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Italy abandons her Congo expedition. New York Herald. Jan. 10. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Kasson interviewed on U.S. policy to Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 11. p. 11, col. 3.
  • French negotiations with the Congo Assn.. New York Herald. Jan. 14. p. 7, col. 3.
  • English merchants object to free trade scheme. New York Herald. Jan. 16. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Granville on free trade with Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 17. p. 5, col. 2.
  • The proposed Congo Railway. New York Herald. Jan. 17. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Reasons for U.S. joining in Congo conference. New York Herald. Jan. 17. p. 5, col. 3.
  • U.S. departure from traditions in Congo conference. New York Herald. Jan. 21. p. 4, col. 2.
  • German trading station on the Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 21. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Lambermont's neutrality proposal. New York Herald. Jan. 21. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Memorial Dipl. on behavior or American delegates. New York Herald. Jan. 23. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Secretary Freylinghuysen's report to Congress on attitude of U.S. in Congo River Conference (editorial). New York Herald. Jan. 30. p. 3, col. 1.
  • Strauch fails in his mission to France. New York Herald. Jan. 31. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Portugal seizes territory on Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 4. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Portuguese occupy lower Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 9. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Portugal and Congo Assn. agree. New York Herald. Feb. 13. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Kasson refuses to sign mem. of Congo proceedings. New York Herald. Feb. 14. p. 5, col. 2.
  • U.S. Congress resolution as to Congo conference. New York Herald. Feb. 21.
  • Final sitting of the Congo conference. New York Herald. Feb. 27. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Comm. Foreign Affairs (U.S. Congress) condemns U.S. participation in Congo conference. New York Herald. Mar. 1. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Von Brusen (?) on U.S. part in work of the Congo conference. New York Herald. Mar. 10. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Drafting a constitution for Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 14. p. 5, col. 4.
  • King Leopold asks permission to be King of Congo State. New York Herald. Apr. 22. p. 7, col. 5.
  • H. M. Stanley appointed Governor of the Congo. New York Herald. May 12. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Mohammedans claim control of Upper Congo. New York Herald. May 23. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Buinie(?)'s suicide at Congo and demoralization. New York Herald. June 3. p. 7, col. 3.
  • French Congo State. New York Herald. June 3. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Lenz's expedition to Congo. New York Herald. June 8. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Lancaster first to salute Congo state flag. New York Herald. June 16. p. 3, col. 3.
  • General Sandford interviewed on trade openings in Congo. New York Herald. June 24. p. 5, col. 4.
  • H. M. Stanley's book on the Congo. New York Herald. June 26. p. 5, col. 5.
  • Tisdel's report on commerce of the Congo and advice to America (editorial). New York Herald. June 29. p. 3, col. 4.
  • Colonel De Winton to return from Congo. New York Herald. July 1. p. 5, col. 2.
  • King Leopold's reception to 24 Africans from Congo (editorial). New York Herald. July 9. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Stanley approves of emigration to Congo. New York Herald. July 17. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Caveat's letter containing charges and revelations (editorial). New York Herald. July 22. p. 5, col. 1.
  • The truth about the Congo (editorial) "Sun". New York Herald. July 23. p. 2, col. 1.
  • The Herald's attack on the Congo State (editorial) "Times". New York Herald. July 24. p. 4, col. 4.
  • Lieutenant Franzin send to Congo. New York Herald. July 28. p. 5, col. 3.
  • English's Rear Admiral poor opinion of Congo country. New York Herald. July 28. p. 5, col. 5.
  • Further reports as to Congo. New York Herald. July 29. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Disasters Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 13. p. 5, col. 4.
  • General Strauch on Congo rumors. New York Herald. Aug. 16. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Dr. Judson's Congo trip given up. New York Herald. Aug. 16. p. 14, col. 2.
  • Stanley and Congo administration (editorial). New York Herald. Aug. 16. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Stanley interviewed on Congo Free State and prospects. New York Herald. Aug. 16. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Bonfaute's and Casman's death, Congo mystery as to. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Lieutenant Volcke on the questions. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Lieutenant Sturm founds the Kingdom of Tanganyika. New York Herald. Aug. 18. p. 5, col. 1.
  • N. P. Tisdel's second report on Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 19. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Congo death rate confirmed. New York Herald. Aug. 19. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Morning Post on delusive character of Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 20. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Lieutenant E. H. Tamit's(?) report on the Congo (editorial). New York Herald. Dec. 31. p. 5, col. 1.

1886

  • Herrmann disgusted with Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 3. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Congo gov't ___ H. M. Stanley for railway. New York Herald. Jan. 23. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Congo monthly S. S. service. New York Herald. Jan. 23. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Congo's letter in reply to Tisdel's charges (editorial). New York Herald. Jan. 24. p. 18, col. 4.
  • Dr. Sinis(?) speaks of Congo country. New York Herald. Feb. 16. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Correspondence between King Leopold and Cleveland as to the Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 23. p. 3, col. 1.
  • French loan Congo off. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Belgian delimitation C______ fails to come. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 7, col. 2.
  • American S. S. Luie proposed Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 8. p. 4, col. 1.
  • Powers ratify congo treaty. New York Herald. Apr. 21. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Tisdel's reply to Stanley as to the Congo (editorial). New York Herald. May 31. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Navigable branches of the Congo discovered. New York Herald. June 24. p. 5, col. 5.
  • King Leopold's journey and denial of rumors as to Congo monopoly. New York Herald. Sept. 15. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Railway concession refused. New York Herald. Oct. 2. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Lieutenant Dubois drowned in Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 15. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Stanley Falls evacuated. New York Herald. Nov. 15. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Bishop Taylor asks for a steamer for Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 28. p. 7, col. 2.
  • H. M. Stanley's advice as to steamer etc. for Congo missions. New York Herald. Dec. 1. p. 5, col. 5.
  • Stanley Falls abandoned (editorial). New York Herald. Dec. 10. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Captail Coquilhat tells of fall of Stanley Falls. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 10, col. 6.

 1887

  • Company formed to build railways etc. New York Herald. Feb. 10. p. 7, col. 3.
  • DeBrazza on the capture of Stanley Falls. New York Herald. Feb. 13. p. 13, col. 4.
  • Congo state deficit (editorial). New York Herald. Feb. 17. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Congo state's lottery loan. New York Herald. Feb. 19. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Congo state, Catholic jurisdiction. New York Herald. Feb. 20. p. 17, col. 2.
  • Bishop William Taylor's mission steamboat for congo. New York Herald. Mar. 9. p. 7, col. 2.
  • French mission on Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 3. p. 20, col. 3.
  • Congo State to issue a lottery loan. New York Herald. Apr. 6. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Lieutenant Taunt resigns from Sandford Co. "World". New York Herald. Apr. 14. p. 1, col. 4.
  • Stanley to meet great difficulties "World". New York Herald. Apr. 14. p. 1, col. 4.
  • Von Geles appointment. New York Herald. Apr. 27. p. 6, col. 3.
  • Congo state and French boundary settled. New York Herald. May 1. p. 15, col. 4.
  • Large Belgian Expedition sails for Congo. New York Herald. May 9. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Young native baptized in Brussels. New York Herald. May 13. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Denial Tippo Tip's engagement endorses slavery. New York Herald. Jun 8. p 7 col 3.
  • Eugene Wolf talks of Congo and Africa. New York Herald. June 13. p. 10, col. 3.
  • King Leopold to provide missionaries for Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 10. p. 5, col. 1.
  • New coins for Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Baugola tribes at war Congo Upoto expedition. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Unknown regions explored. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Arabs desert Stanley and correction of dates. New York Herald. Aug. 17. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Stanley Falls, Congo. Arabs revolt. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 7, col. 1.
  • King Leopold's visit to London to get loan for Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Baron Niniptsch describes Congo country. New York Herald. Sept. 24. p. 8, col. 5.
  • Congo anarchy. New York Herald. Sept. 24. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Efforts to restore order. New York Herald. Oct. 14. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Stanley Falls, expedition to recapture. New York Herald. Oct. 16. p. 13, col. 3.

1888

  • Van de Velde and Warlomont die in Congo. New York Herald. Feb. 25. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Belgian expedition recalled. New York Herald. Mar. 16. p. 5, col. 3.
  • General H. S. Sandford's views on Stanley's Expedition. New York Herald. Apr. 23. p. 7, col. 4.
  • News from the Congo. New York Herald. May 13. p. 13, col. 3.
  • Congo expedition appropriation resolution, Congress. New York Herald. May 26. p. 2, col. 5.
  • Major Barttelot heard from. New York Herald. June 13. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Governor Janssen interviewed on Stanley's whereabouts. New York Herald. July 22. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Deane killed in Congo. New York Herald. July 26. p. 5, col. 2.
  • DeBrazza interviewed on Congo prospects, slavery etc (editorial). New York Herald. Aug. 19. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Major Barttelot's murder, facts. New York Herald. Sept. 15. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Edw. Mathews' letter denouncing Bishop Taylor's missions. New York Herald. Sept. 16. p. 8, col. 5.
  • J. C. Waller's letter reply to Bishop Taylor and Merritt on.. New York Herald. Sept. 16. p. 8, col. 5.
  • Major Barttelot's report on his expeditions in aid of H. M Stanley. New York Herald. Sept. 20. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Prof. Jamieson's death. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Edwin Small's letter on Barttelot's ill treatment of natives. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 7, col. 2.
  • James Mathews letter, defence of brother in Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 23. p. 22, col. 3.
  • Janssen, made governor of Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 2. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Barttelot's murderer executed. New York Herald. Oct. 17. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Tippoo Tib's views on Barttelot's death. New York Herald. Oct. 18. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Zanzibar natives hired to work at Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 8. p. 7, col. 5.
  • Emory H. Taunt appointed Consul at Boma. New York Herald. Dec. 8. p. 5, col. 5.
  • Kabuida(?) Carr. marriage customs. New York Herald. Dec. 23. p. 18, col. 6.

1889

  • Congo steamer supposed to have news of Stanley. New York Herald. Jan. 15. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Hired labor on the Congo, how procured. New York Herald. Mar. 24. p. 14, col. 4.
  • Zomani(?), affluent of Congo, explored. New York Herald. Apr. 6. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Congo railroad cost etc.. New York Herald. Apr. 15. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Congo state loan taken. New York Herald. Apr. 25. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Congo country prosperous. New York Herald. May 29. p. 7, col. 3.
  • C[ollis] P. Huntington's interest in the Congo railroad, details. New York Herald. June 16. p. 18, col. 1.
  • C.S. Brice's views on the Congo railroad. New York Herald. June 17. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Congo railroad, London Herald on. New York Herald. June 18. p. 6, col. 4.
  • Western men on Congo railroad. New York Herald. . p. 4, col. 3.
  • Rev. Clark and others on Congo railroad. New York Herald.. American railway presidents on Congo railroad. New York Herald. . Congo railroad, estimates and full details of schedule. New York Herald. .
  • S. DeBrazza's views on the Congo railroad. New York Herald. . Exhaustive review of Congo commerce, railroad scheme, etc.. New York Herald. June 20. p. 3, col. 3.
  • Missionaries on Congo railroad. New York Herald. June 20. p. 3, col. 3.
  • LeGhart describes Congo railway scheme and country (map). New York Herald. June 28. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Congo railway, Belgium subscribes and bill as to. New York Herald. June 28. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Congo railway, more than sentiment (editorial). New York Herald. June 29. p. 6, col. 2.
  • S.S. Loulaba ascends Congo to Matadi. New York Herald. July 4. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Appropriation for a transport service. New York Herald. July 24. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Congo railroad subscription, Europe. New York Herald. July 30. p. 7, col. 5.
  • Lieutenant Dhaws'(?) report on Congo trade. New York Herald. Aug. 6. p. 7, col. 5.
  • Lieutenant E. H. Taunt's report on the Congo Free State. New York Herald. Aug. 15. p. 6, col. 5.
  • Haneuse(?) on Congo affairs. New York Herald. Aug. 24. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Superior Council for Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 31. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Congo railway project, prospectus of company. New York Herald. Sept. 16. p. 8, col. 6.
  • Missions in Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 11. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Decree as to expulsions, Congo Territory. New York Herald. Oct. 11. p. 7, col. 1. 80
  • Chiefs recognize Congo State. New York Herald. Oct. 20. p. 19, col. 3.
  • Failure of M. DeBrazza's scheme. New York Herald. Dec. 14. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Congo state's Supreme council's first meeting. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 7, col. 2.
  • French railroad congo. New York Herald. Dec. 20. p. 7, col. 3.

1890

  • River Lonians(?) ascended. New York Herald. Jan. 4. p. 5, col. 3.
  • King Leopold favors American negroes for Congo. New York Herald. Jan 14 p 7 col 3.
  • Decree as to missions. New York Herald. Jan. 19. p. 17, col. 3.
  • Sanitarium established. New York Herald. Jan. 19. p. 17, col. 3.
  • French frost massacre, cause of . New York Herald. Mar. 20. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Congo loan guaranteed. New York Herald. Apr. 14. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Terrell opposes import duty at Congo - Brussels congress. New York Herald. May 16. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Terrell's U. S. Minister policy criticised by Independence Belge. New York Herald. May 17. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Congo Conference as to tariff and U.S.. New York Herald. June 5. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Anti-slavery conference ended and Congo treaty amended by U.S.. New York Herald. June 21. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Holland joins U.S. as to Congo tariff. New York Herald. June 26. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Anti-slavery Act and duties Congo. New York Herald. June 29. p. 17, col. 3.
  • Congo bill, nature loan etc. New York Herald. July 10. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Proposition to put duty on alcohol. New York Herald. Oct. 29. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Natives rebellious. New York Herald. Dec. 3. p. 7, col. 4.

1891

  • Congo Baptist mission not abandoned. New York Herald. Jan. 14. p. 7, col. 3.
  • American goods in Congo, declaration for. New York Herald. Jan. 26. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Brussels treaty as to Congo not passed. New York Herald. Mar. 5. p. 3, col. 2.
  • King Leopold incensed at U.S. rejection of Congo slavery resolution. New York Herald. Mar. 6. p. 7, col. 3.
  • London Times remonstrates with King Leopold as to Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 21. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Captain W. G. Stairs commands expedition to Congo headwaters. New York Herald. May 12. p. 10, col. 6.
  • Congo treaty against slavery to go in force. New York Herald. June 13. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Troops and slave traders, bloody battle. New York Herald. July 9. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Congo punishes cannibals. New York Herald. July 25. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Crampel mission destroyed. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Petition to Congress as to Berlin treaty re: slave traffic. New York Herald. Dec. 14. p. 7, col. 6.

1892

  • Slave trade convention provisions etc. New York Herald. Jan. 12. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Missionaries massacred, details (Special Corr.). New York Herald. Jan 28. p 7 col 3.
  • Congo news _____ slave hunters. New York Herald. Feb. 26. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Congo enterprises opposition to. New York Herald. Mar. 5. p. 7, col. 3.
  • King Leopold refuses to sell Congo to U.S.. New York Herald. Mar. 9. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Tobacco to be grown in Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 22. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Congo violation of Anti-Slavery Conference. New York Herald. Congo buys rifles. New York Herald.
  • Congo troubles. New York Herald.
  • Jesuit missionaries for Congo. NY Herald.
  • Arabs defeated. New York Herald.
  • New governor appointed. New York Herald.
  • Negro laborers fired on. New York Herald.
  • Huntington interests, Congo imports. New York Herald. Aug. 13. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Arabs torture leader of expedition. New York Herald. Aug. 14. p. 17, col. 3.
  • Arabs revolt due to Mecca's orders. New York Herald. Aug. 15. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Arabs chafing under anti-slavery restriction. New York Herald. Aug. 15. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Lieutenant Liegeois killed. New York Herald. Oct. 23. p. 21, col. 1.
  • Railway up Congo described and illustrated. "Sun". NY Herald. Nov. 13. p. 8, col. 1.
  • Congo and the rubber tax. New York Herald. Nov. 26. p. 7, col. 2.

1893

  • Congo railway engine explodes car of dynamite, 50 killed. New York Herald. Jan. 16. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Slave traders to be fought. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Delcommune and Bia Expeditions news. New York Herald. Mar. 5. p. 23, col. 1.
  • Source of Congo discovered. New York Herald. Mar. 7. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Alex Delcommune's discoveries of source of Congo, description. "Sun". New York Herald. June 11. p. 8, col. 4.
  • Arab slave traders defeated. New York Herald. July 7. p. 7, col. 4.
  • Arab slave traders defeated. New York Herald. July 11. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Belgium to annex Congo. New York Herald. July 14. p. 7, col. 2.
  • West Indian immigrants, sufferings of and deaths (Panama Special Corr.). New York Herald. July 2. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Mohuns expedition, result of. New York Herald. Oct. 30. p. 7, col. 5.
  • Mohuns leoml ag't report on African slave trade butcheries oc.. New York Herald. Nov. 5. p. 7, col. 6.
  • Dhanis leapt in bad health. New York Herald. Nov. 10. p. 9, col. 3.
  • New railway in Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 7, col. 3.

1894

  • Captain Ponthier defeated and killed by Arabs. New York Herald. Jan 20. p 7 col 4.
  • Auxiliary troops kill their officers. New York Herald. Jan. 25. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Arab revolt review of and map. "Sun". New York Herald. Mar. 11. p. 4, col. 6.
  • Kadambare captured by Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 25. p. 11, col. 3.
  • British treaty with Belgium giving connecting link British possessions in Africa and map (editorial). New York Herald. May 23. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Mohun's Consul expedition vs. slave trade. New York Herald. June 13. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Hostile feeling toward the French. New York Herald. June 16. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Congo treaty with France. New York Herald. Aug. 15. p. 9, col. 2.
  • France's treaty signed. New York Herald. Sept. 2. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Baron Dhanis, return from Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 13. p. 9, col. 5.

1895

  • Stokes execution. New York Herald. Aug. 10. p. 8, col. 1.
  • Desperate battle in Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 31. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Stokes case serious. New York Herald. Sept. 6. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Captain Lothaire's crime nature of. New York Herald. Sept. 8. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Captain Lothaire recalled. New York Herald. Sept. 15. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Outrages on the natives. New York Herald. Sept. 15. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Captain Lothaire case, King Leopold on. New York Herald. Sept. 16. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Captain Lothaire, further charges against. New York Herald. Sept. 17. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Cannibals eat Lieutenant Cassarts. New York Herald. Sept. 24. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Baron Dhanis's secret expedition. New York Herald. Oct. 9. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Massacre at Luluabourg. New York Herald. Oct. 12. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Captain Lothaire's killing of an American. New York Herald. Oct. 22. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Belgium frays indemnity of Captain Lothaire's murder of Stokes details and portrait. New York Herald. Oct. 28. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Stokes indemnity, amount of. New York Herald. Nov. 15. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Stokes-Lothaire affair, further. New York Herald. Nov. 23. p. 9, col. 2.

1896

  • Captain Lothaire tried execution of trader Stokes. NY Herald. Apr. 16. p. 11, col. 6.
  • Captain Lothaire acquitted. New York Herald. May 3. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Great Britain will appeal decision to acquit Captain Lothaire. New York Herald. May 9. p. 9, col. 2. Rev.
  • Snyder's explorations. New York Herald. Aug. 20. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Outrages in Congo, story of. "World". New York Herald. Sept. 27. p. 28, col. 1.

1897

  • Native soldiers mutiny. New York Herald. May 6. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Neis Melan, American, murdered by his own soldiers. New York Herald. May 30. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Dhanis expedition defeat and effect on. New York Herald. July 4. p. 1, col. 4.
  • 1898 (top)
  • Congo troops defeated near Lake Tanganyika. New York Herald. Jan. 14. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Neuhaus killed and eaten. New York Herald. Mar. 5. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Germany's dispute with Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 1. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Ubanghi massacre, 70 killed. New York Herald. Dec. 15. p. 9, col. 3.

1899

  • Batelas tribe defeats Lieutenant Stevens. New York Herald. Jan. 8. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Batelas tribe to be punished. New York Herald. Jan. 12. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Belgian troops losses heavy in fighting. New York Herald. Jan. 23. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Rebellion spreads, Lothaire's troops desert. New York Herald. Feb. 1. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Rojaf, Congo, not captured. New York Herald. Feb. 7. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Canary Islands' offer to buy. New York Herald. June 14. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Rebellion Congo Battle and defeat of natives. New York Herald. Sept. 2. p. 9, col. 3.

1900

  • Reign of terror in Congo and Chamberlain's reply as to proposed investigation. New York Herald. Feb. 22. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Morrison's charges to be investigated. New York Herald. Feb. 28. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Cruelties & excesses in Congo & Maj Lothaire accused. New York Herald. Apr. 25.
  • Cruelties, Congo. Vanderwelde's speech on, blaming Leopold II. New York Herald. Apr. 25. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Massacres in Congo proved true. New York Herald. Apr. 27. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Germany seizes Congo territory. New York Herald. May 15. p. 11, col. 2.
  • German forces fighting with Congo, details. New York Herald. May 16. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Germany's agreement as to Congo. New York Herald. May 19. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Raid from Congo into British territory. New York Herald. Aug. 7. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Congo boundary dispute with Germany settled by Belgium getting concession at Tsin, China. New York Herald. Nov. 21. p. 9, col. 5.

1901

  • Negroes of Cuba (18,000 of Congo origin) petition Leopold II to migrate to Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 23. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Brussels decides to annex Congo. New York Herald. June 5. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgian officers massacre women. New York Herald. July 2. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Fox-Bourne charges vs. Congo Administration of cruelties to natives. New York Herald. Aug. 12. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Congo automobile service. New York Herald. Sept. 11. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Belgian influence. New York Times. Sept. 18. p. 1, col. 4.
  • Welle pacified. New York Times. Oct. 15. p. 1, col. 2.
  • Black troops in Congo roasted and eaten. New York Herald. Nov. 2. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Canisius' story of cruelties to natives. New York Herald. Nov. 8. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Congo Free State horrors. New York Times. Nov. 8. p. 2, col. 5.

1902

  • Atrocities committed in Congo described by Captain Guy Burrows. New York Herald. Jan. 3. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Congo atrocities: Captain Burrows. New York Times. Jan. 3. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Congo railroad planned. New York Herald. Jan. 5. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Martial law in Congo, Lord Salisbury's defence of. New York Herald. Mar. 18. p. 9, col. 4.
  • French hated. New York Times. Apr. 12. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Cape to Cairo railroad to be built through Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 25. p. 9, col. 5.

1903

  • Lieutenant Magnee and party killed and eaten. New York Herald. Jan. 1. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Belgians massacred. New York Times. Jan. 1. p. 4, col. 1.
  • King to stop raids. New York Times. Jan. 7. p. 8, col. 6.
  • Belgian cruelty. New York Times. Mar. 22. p. 4, col. 5.
  • French swindlers. New York Times. Mar. 22. p. 5, col. 7.
  • Cruelties in Congo, detailed extracts. "Sun". New York Herald. Apr. 5. p. 1, col.
  • Belgian report. New York Times. Apr. 12. p. 4, col. 7.
  • Rev. Morrison tells. New York Times. May 6. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelties described by Rev. William Morrison. New York Herald. May 6. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Congo cruelty stories, told by Rev. William Morrison, replied to by Consul Houchet. New York Herald. May 11. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Houdret to Morrison. New York Times. May 11. p. 2, col. 1.
  • Congo cruelties, R. Whyte on alleged investigation of. New York Herald. May 15. p. 9, col. 3.
  • British Parliament's discussion of Congo charges. New York Herald. May 21. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Parliament acts. New York Times. May 21. p. 5, col. 1.
  • M. N. Cito interviewed on progress in Congo. New York Herald. May 31. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Thornton and his escort murdered in Congo. New York Herald. June 27. p. 9, col. 3.
  • More scandals. New York Times. June 28. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Belgian government's attitude to Congo. New York Herald. July 2. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelty charges denied, details. New York Herald. July 21. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Belgian deputies address, reply to Congo cruelty charges. New York Herald. July 22. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Politics at the root of the Congo outcry (editorial). New York Herald. July 23. p. 10, col. 2.
  • Congo trade, Duke John Albrecht's letter charging Germany is debarred from. New York Herald. July 25. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Paris Herald's editorial defending King Leopold's administration in Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 9. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Belgian Federation defends Congo against charges. New York Herald. Aug. 9. p. 9, col. 1.
  • British protest send re: Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 20. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Eng note to signatories. New York Times. Aug. 20. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Jean Hess's views; La Verite Le Bulletin Officiel. New York Times. Aug. 23. p. 4, col. 7.
  • Belgian officials arrested. New York Times. Aug. 26. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Plans of the powers. New York Times. Sept. 27. p. 4, col. 4.
  • Cruelty charges, Le Petit Bl___. New York Herald.
  • Congo cruelties, King Leopold reply. New York Herald.
  • Congo cruelties etc, Swiss Office. New York Herald.
  • Cruelties, King Leopold asks. New York Herald.
  • King Leopold fights for Congo and is said to have France's support, details and review of case. New York Herald. Oct. 14. p. 11, col. 5.
  • U. S. will not interfere in Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 27. p. 11, col. 6.
  • Luluaberg attacked by native. New York Times. Nov. 7. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Slaver, Eng Consul's report. Ry report. New York Times. Dec. 6. p. 4, col. 4.
  • Gold found in Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 14. p. 11, col. 3.

1904

  • Congo missionaries protest as to cruelties. New York Herald. Mar. 26. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Lies about Congo hailed by a British jury. New York Herald. Mar. 27. p. 10, col. 4.
  • Libellous stories in book "Curse of Central Africa" Captain de Keyser gets damages against Captain Guy Burrows due to,. New York Herald. Mar. 27. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Missionaries in Congo, representatives see
  • President Roosevelt as to their grievances. New York Herald. Mar. 28. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Cruelties, missionaries stories of misdeeds in, must be substantiated before Secretary Hay acts. New York Herald. Mar. 29. p. 5, col. 7.
  • Cruelties, King Leopold refutes charges against Congo Government re: to Sun. New York Herald. Mar. 29. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Congo cruelties full report on. New York Herald. Mar. 6. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Cruelties in Congo, King Leopold refutes charge,
  • Brussels note showing which of stories, details. New York Herald. Apr. 5. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Cruelties in Congo, Rev. Dr. Morrison on. New York Herald. Apr. 6. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Lake Albert and Nyanza belongs to Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 28. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Belgian minister asks Secretary Hay to investigate charges of alleged cruelties in Congo. New York Herald. May 27. p. 14, col. 1.
  • Cruelties in Congo, Belgian minister did not ask Secretary Hay to investigate. New York Herald. May 28. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Cruelties in Congo, official correspondence as to charges, extracts. New York Herald. June 9. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Cruelties in Congo, charges, review of libel case of Captain De Keyser vs. Burrows. New York Herald. June 9. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Cruelties in Congo, "Truth about Congo atrocities" (editorial). New York Herald. June 10. p. 8, col. 2.
  • Cruelties charges, Sir Charles Dilke's arguments on. New York Herald. June 10. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Bumba, Congo, pictures of in 1882 and 1902. New York Herald. June 10. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, Consul Casement's report on. New York Herald. June 10. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, J. G. Whiteley interviewed on and claims Great Britain seeks part of Congo. New York Herald. June 10. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, "Atrocities in the Congo" (editorial). New York Herald. June 11. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, "An Old Congo lie" (editorial). New York Herald. June 11. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, U.S. unwilling to act in Congo matter. New York Herald. June 11. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, "Let us mind our own business" (editorial). New York Herald. June 12. p. 6, col. 3.
  • King Leopold's work for Congo is vindicated and illustrated. New York Herald. June 12. p. 4, col. 1.
  • Cruelty charges Congo, King Leopold's work for Congo is vindicated and illustrated. New York Herald. June 12. p. 4, col. 1.
  • Cruelty charges fully denied and official review of. New York Herald. June 12. p. 4. Pictures of Congo towns. New York Herald. June 12. p. 4, col. .
  • Consular tribunal's proposal rejected. New York Herald. June 13. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Cruelty charges "The milk in the Congo cocoanut" (editorial). New York Herald. June 15. p. 10, col. 4.
  • Cruelty charges Congo Investigation, Baron Moncheur on. New York Herald. June 15. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Missionaries, American rumored to be expelled from Congo. New York Herald. July 8. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Prosperity in Congo described in report of its Governor General. New York Herald. July 15. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Congo commission named. New York Herald. July 24. p. 9, col. 7.
  • Rebellion in Congo reported. New York Herald. Aug. 18. p. 9, col. 2.
  • German invasion feared, and concealed forts constructed, details. New York Herald. Sept. 1. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Belgian-German quarrel. New York Times. Sept. 1. p. 1, col. 4.
  • Congo cruelties denied by Carton de Wiart in interview. New York Herald. Sept. 4. p. 6, col. 1.
  • Congo Reform Association to send us Morel. New York Times. Sept. 13. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Morel to see Roosevelt. New York Times. Sept. 30. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Cruelties, E. D. Morel urges President Roosevelt to interfere in Congo matter. New York Herald. Oct. 1. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Congo charges, George H. Head interviewed on the. New York Herald. Oct 2. p 4, col 5.
  • Belgium protests; England complaints. New York Times. Oct. 2. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Cruelty charges, Geo. H. Head's charges against Congo Reform Association. New York Herald. Oct. 5. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Congo cruelties Captain Baccari says officials tried to kill him, said he was crazy. New York Herald. Oct. 6. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgian rule in Congo, Dr. C. Sarolea's lecture in Philadelphia and defends. New York Herald. Oct. 6. p. 8, col. 7.
  • Petition; US won't intervene. New York Times. Oct. 7. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Congo cruelties, Internal Peace Congress debate on. New York Herald. Oct. 8. p. 6, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelties, President Roosevelt withholds decision. New York Herald. Oct. 9. p. 7, col. 3.
  • Congo charges, Peace Congress urges inquiry into. New York Herald. Oct. 9. p. 7, col. 4.
  • U. S. not to investigate alleged maladministration of affairs by Belgian officials, and Baron Moncheur interviewed. New York Herald. Oct. 12. p. 8, col. 7.
  • Congo cruelties, stories, Justitia Americas letter on. New York Herald. Oct. 16. p. 10, col. 7.
  • Morel interview. New York Times. Oct. 17. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Leopold sends Kowalsky here; thanks Gibbons. New York Times. Oct. 18. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Cruelties, Belgian's version denying atrocities in Congo presented to President Roosevelt by Col. Kowalsky, details, Washington. New York Herald. Oct. 18. p. 8, col. 7.
  • Kowalsky; debate challenge from Barbour. New York Times. Oct. 21. p. 6, col. 4.
  • Congo railroad described and illustrated. New York Herald. Nov. 13. p. 2, col. .
  • Life in the Congo, Lord Mountmorres' article on. New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 6, col. 4.
  • Belgium's great work in the Congo, Prof. A. Herniex's lecture on, Waldorf-Astoria. New York Herald. Dec. 14. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Congo cruelties stories, Mrs. M. F. Sheldon's comment on. New York Herald. Dec. 18. p. 11, col. 6.
  • Congo cruelties stories, Mrs. M. French Sheldon says natives were kindly treated. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 9, col. 4.

1905

  • Murder of whites by natives in upper regions. New York Herald. Jan. 12. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Revolt of natives. New York Times. Jan. 12. p. 1, col. 6.
  • Massacre denied. New York Herald. Jan. 14. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Congo reports, H. J. Kowalsky's letter doubling. New York Herald. Jan. 16. p. 8, col. 7.
  • Belgian counter memorial on Congo charges. New York Herald. Jan. 25. p. 9, col. 1.
  • French atrocities. New York Times. Feb. 18. p. 5, col. 2.
  • Robert E. Park refutes statements made in Henry Wellington Wack's book "The Story of the Congo State". New York Times. Mar. 12. p. 10, col. 3.
  • Poison plot against Italian officials Dr. Micucci and Dr. Baccari charges. New York Times. June 5. p. 4, col. 2.
  • To be investigated by Italy: Deputies denounce atrocities; emigration stopped. New York Times. June 13. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Italy discusses the Congo. New York Herald. June 13. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Dr. Baccari's report on Congo warning against. New York Herald. July 21. p. 9, col. 4.
  • French soldiers kill Germans in dispute over land. New York Herald. July 30 p 11 col 1.
  • Franco-German clash in Cameroon over shooting of soldiers. New York Herald. Aug. 1. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Rept on remarkable development of industries and resources. New York Times. Aug. 27. p. 4, col. 4.
  • French Congo, cruelties in. New York Herald. Sept. 27. p. 11, col. 4.
  • French Congo officials, charges made against by M. DeBrazza before his death. New York Herald. Oct. 7. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Congo cruelties, Rev. J. H. Harris interviewed on. "American". New York Herald. Oct. 8. p. 15, col. 2.
  • Congo cruelties, Mark Twain's article denouncing King Leopold for, illus, pictures of maimed negroes, etc. "American". New York Herald. Oct. 8. p. 14, col. .
  • Progress in Congo. Baron Von Krint interviewed on, details. New York Herald. Oct. 13. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Belgian administration in Congo, Baron Moncheur on. New York Herald. Oct. 18. p. 11, col. 6.
  • India rubber industry in Congo recommended to Americans by Consul General J. G. Whitelaw. New York Herald. Nov. 5. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelties, etc. International Comm's report on. New York Herald. Nov. 5. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Few abuses found by comm of international investigators who admired work of Belgian Govt; King Leopold to order reforms suggested by comm. New York Times. Nov. 5. p. 6, col. 1.

1906

  • Congo cruelties, "Hair raising Pictures" (editorial). New York Herald. Feb. 11. p. 10, col. 3.
  • Congo atrocities (editorial). New York Herald. Feb. 27. p. 10, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelties, G. Stanley Hall asserts the U.S. should interfere in cases. New York Herald. Mar. 8. p. 1, col. 2.
  • Congo, its critics and Champions, book by Comm. of Inquiry. New York Herald. Mar. 17. p. 13, col. 2.
  • Baptist conference's appeal on behalf of Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 27. p. 1, col. 4.
  • Boston Christian Endeavor Unions appeal, behalf Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 6. p. 1, col. 2.
  • Reforms, Gov't studying plans for. New York Herald. Apr. 24. p. 9, col. 2.
  • U. S. Consul Generalship bill in Congress for establishment of. New York Herald. May 3. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Reforms, King Leopold to institute in Congo. New York Herald. June 3. p. 11, col. 5.
  • Congo cruelties, additional stories as to, illustrated. "American". New York Herald. June 17. p. 13, col. .
  • Congo cruelties, Rev. Dr. R. H. Nassau's statement as to, and map. New York Herald. June 17. p. 5, col.
  • Congo administration stands firm, refuses British request for publication of evidence. New York Herald. June 19. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Consul general in Congo, Clarence R. Slocum appointed. New York Herald. June 24. p. 3, col. 1.
  • England's attitude in the Congo, Lord Lansdowne's address in House of London. New York Herald. July 4. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgian officers defended by Col. Van Zuylf and proof of charges demanded. New York Herald. July 10. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Belgians in London refute attack on King Leopold's administration by M. Vanderville. New York Herald.. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Reform (editorial). New York Herald. July 28. p. 8, col. 3.
  • British consuls in Congo, missionaries appeal for appointment of. New York Herald. Aug. 22. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Rubber trust to retire in favor of J. P. Morgan's syndicate. New York Herald. Sept. 12. p. 3, col. 2.
  • Rubber, Congo supply, contest between U.S. India Rubber Company and Continental India Rubber Company to secure. New York Herald. Sept. 22. p. 15, col. 1.
  • Congo Independant State, Leopold asks Vatican's aid in preventing a conference on existing conditions in Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 18. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Rubber, Thomas F. Ryan secures contract to gather in Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 20. p. 4, col. 5.
  • Government of Congo defended by Joseph G. Whiteley in letter. "Sun". New York Herald. Oct. 27. p. 6, col. 5.
  • Congo Independent State, Price Albert of Flanders declared head of. New York Herald. Nov. 10. p. 9, col. 2.
  • American company gets concession for rubber and other exploitations. New York Herald. Nov. 20. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Congo cruelties, King Leopold spoken of as the Devil Incarnate, due to. "Times". New York Herald. Nov. 22. p. 1, col. 3.
  • Congo compulsory labor abolished. New York Herald. Nov. 22. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Concessions for rubber etc. to American company. New York Herald. Nov. 20. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Congo Independent State, King Leopold's patriotism in ceding praised. New York Herald. Nov. 29. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Congo cruelties, King Leopold's attempt to influence U. S. Congress not to investigate, full details. "American". New York Herald. Dec. 10. p. 1, col. 7.
  • Mutilated Congo natives, pictures of. "American". New York Herald. Dec. 10. p. 2, col. .
  • Cruelties in Congo denied by King Leopold, interviewed. New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Belgian lobby scandal as to Congo, details. "Amer". New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 1, col. 6.
  • Cruelties in Congo, Senator Lodge moved for inquiry in. "Tribune". New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Belgian lobby, text of T. G. Garrett's letters to Kowalsky. "Amer". New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 2, col. .
  • British govt seeks territory from Congo for railroad from Cape to Cairo. New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 11, col. 2.
  • Criminal action to be taken by Col. Kowalsky re: lobby charges. "American". New York Herald. Dec. 13. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Concessions granted by King Leopold to T. F. Ryan in Congo to quiet U. S., map of. New York Herald. Dec. 13. p. 1, col. 7.
  • Belgium accepts the bequest of Congo Independent State. New York Herald. Dec. 15. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Belgium in the Congo, Dr. H. G. Guinness describes King Leopold's attempt to interest English capitalists in. "Amer". New York Herald. Dec. 16. p. 34, col. 1.
  • Congo cruelties are exaggerated says Gibbons and defends Leopold. New York Herald. Dec. 16. p. 3, col. 2.
  • Belgium in the Congo, The disgraceful Congo lobby, why is official action withheld. "Amer".. New York Herald. Dec. 17. p. 16, col. 1.
  • Congo cruelties investigation urged by Baltimore clergyman. New York Herald. Dec. 18. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Congo concession, Dr. G. Aked says Mr. Rockefeller is not interested in. "American". New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 1, col. 1.
  • Congo cruelties, Cooper Union was meeting as to, pictures. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 1, col. 1.
  • Belgium's action in accepting Congo likely to satisfy clamor. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelty stories denied by R. C. Mathot. New York Herald. Dec. 27. p. 6, col. 1.
  • U. S. not to interfere in Congo affairs. New York Herald. Dec. 27. p. 6, col. 5.
  • U. S. attitude in Congo affairs, State Dept. statement to British representative. New York Herald. Dec. 29. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Railroad and other development in Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 30. p. 4, col. 5.

1907

  • Rubber industry in the Congo, Bonsal's article, illustrated. New York Herald. Jan. 6. p. 8, col. .
  • RC Church protests alleged US interference in Congo. New York Times. Jan 6 p 2, col 5.
  • Catholics and Bishops take sides on Lodge resolution and send petition to Congress. New York Herald. Jan. 7. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Foreign missions Bd appeals to Pres T. Roosevelt, US Sen and King Edward to apply pressure on Belgium to end alleged mistreatment of natives. New York Times. Jan. 14. p. 8, col. 3.
  • Congo cruelties, cause of, described by R. A. Durand. "Tribune". New York Herald. Jan. 20. p. 8, col. 4.
  • Revolt in Congo. New York Herald. Jan. 26. p. 9, col. 1.
  • US Senate Foreign Relations com votes mild resolution supporting any action taken by Roosevelt on Congo situation. New York Times. Jan. 26. p. 2, col. 4.
  • Insurgent native forces successfully ambush Belgian troops. New York Times. Jan. 26. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Revolt in Congo suppressed. New York Herald. Feb. 2. p. 9, col. 4.
  • US Senate approves resolution encouraging Roosevelt intercession in Congo. New York Times. Feb. 16. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Natives reported to be on verge of open revolt. New York Times. Feb 26 p 4, col 1.
  • Article asserts natives are well treated by Belgian authorities; missionaries believed to be exaggerating abuses. New York Times. Apr. 7. p. 18, col. 6.
  • Congo expedition, A. C. Beatty returns from Belgium re. New York Herald. Apr. 10. p. 15, col. 6.
  • Fight expected over Congo. New York Herald. Apr. 16. p. 9, col. 5.
  • France, King Leopold reported may offer Congo to. New York Herald. Apr. 30. p. 9, col. 7.
  • America's duty in Congo, Senator Morgan's report to Senate on. New York Herald. Mar. 2. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Belgian concession expected to prove rich, detls & Thomas F. Ryan's aim in Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 5, col. 6.
  • American concession expected to prove rich, A. C. Beatty and party of engineers to sail for Congo. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 5, col. 6.
  • American congo Company Mohun to manage. New York Herald. Mar. 5. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Gold expedition to be sent to Congo by Ryan and Guggenheim. New York Herald. Mar. 23. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Cruelties of the powers in Africa and English plan to grabe Congo, Major Louis L. Seaman's address on. New York Herald. Mar. 24. p. 7, col. 3.
  • France and the Congo's fate. New York Herald. May 1. p. 9, col. 5.
  • France refuses to break ranks with Great Britain by giving suppor to Belgian King Leopold on his Congo policy. New York Times. May 2. p. 4, col. 5.
  • King Leopold's mission to Paris to gain French support against GB on Congo question reptdly ends in fairlure. New York Times. May 5. p. 4, col. 2.
  • France, King Leopold's complete failure to get France's support re his Congo policy. New York Herald. May 5. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgium to get the Congo. New York Herald. May 10. p. 8, col. 5.
  • Congo annexation discussed. New York Herald. May 14. p. 9, col. 2.
  • American Congo Co's plans described. "Sun". New York Herald. May 14 p 8, col 5.
  • Brit Parliament declares Belgium must end abuses in congo. New York Times. May 16. p. 6, col. 6.
  • Americans in Congo, King Leopold receives R. D. Mohun, who leads the Int'l Forestry Co.. New York Herald. May 18. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Belg. Parl.iamentary rept on cond. of Congo. New York Herald. June 8 p 9, col 4.
  • Rept to Belgian Govt on Congo pol and econ situation maintains Crown Domain is legal; defends practice of making natives pay taxes in hard labor. New York Times. June 8. p. 3, col. 4.
  • Belgian annexationists say rept on econ and pol situation does not supply information demanded by Belg. Parliamentary comm. New York Times. June 10. p. 2, col. 6.
  • Belgian report on Congo criticized. New York Herald. June 10. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Congo native army exposed. New York Herald. July 13. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgian rule for the Congo, agreement between Congo and Belgium. New York Herald. July 25. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Belgian annexation move. New York Herald. July 11. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Belgian Major Lomaire [LeMaire?] declares King Leopold ordered '04 Anglo-Egyptian force from Sudan vanquished at any cost. New York Times. July 29. p. 4, col. 4.
  • Brit House of Lords discusses Belgian rule in Congo; Lord Monkswell calls system of govt there unrestrained tyranny. New York Times. July 30. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Editorial wants US to withdraw recognition of Congo because of outrages committed against native population. New York Times. Aug. 13. p. 6, col. 3.
  • Congo transfer committee formed. New York Herald. Aug. 19. p. 9, col. 7.
  • King Leopold appts comm to negotiate treaty to annex Congo to Belgium. New York Times. Aug. 24. p. 3, col. 3.
  • King Leopold turns over large part of Congo to joint stock co in which he reptdly has financial interests. New York Times. Sept. 9. p. 3, col. 2.
  • Crown lands in Congo, King Leopold turns them over to a Company. New York Herald. Sept. 9. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Crown domain, King Leopold's tricky policy in _____ in Congo described. "Times". New York Herald. Sept. 15. p. 1, col. 7.
  • Belgium to annex Congo. New York Herald. Sept. 15.
  • American concession in Congo described. New York Herald. Sept. 15. p. 1, col. 2.
  • Belgians reptdly outraged over King Leopold's scheme for transferring Congo's resources to co. owned jointly by himself and friends; Brit intervention urged. New York Times. Sept 15 p 1, col. 7.
  • King Leopold reptdly fears obligatory arbitration plan proposed at Hague Peace Conf could be applied to Congo situation; orders his delegate to oppose plan. New York Times. Sept. 17. p. 3, col. 1.
  • Editorial scores King Leopold for his adm of Congo. New York Times. Sept. 18. p. 8, col. 1.
  • Bitter struggle reptd likely between King Leopold and Belgian Parliament over annexation of Congo. New York Times. Sept. 29. p. 2, col. 1.
  • Budget provisions. New York Herald. Oct. 8. p. 11, col. 4.
  • King Leopold and Parliament deadlocked in controversy over Congo resources; W. Dustin sues Congo Crown Domain for $1.2 million for non-execution of contract permitting him to exploit area's resources. New York Times. Oct. 13. p. 3, col. 7.
  • Runwaert, slain by Congo natives. New York Herald. Oct. 20. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Rev. W. Murdoch, Bapt missionary who recently returned from Congo, claims Congo reforms are myth concocted for benefit of Eur ears. New York Times. Oct. 27. p. 2, col. 6.
  • Crown of Congo on morganatic son, King Leopold may confer. "World". New York Herald. Nov. 3. p. 3, col. 6.
  • Caution as to Congo, Sir Edward Grey advises. New York Herald. Nov. 10. p. 10, col. 2.
  • GB reptdly will call conf of world powers to halt brutality in Congo. New York Times. Nov. 10. p. 6, col. 2.
  • Editorial urges action by world powers to halt brutality in Congo. New York Times. Nov. 11. p. 1, col. 6.
  • Congo treaty deadlock. New York Herald. Nov. 23. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgium annexes Congo by treaty. New York Herald. Dec. 6. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Parliament reptd to be against King Leopold's new treaty transferring Congo to Belgium; critics say it is designed to preserve King's personall commercial interests. New York Times. Dec. 8. p. 2, col. 3.
  • France demands her rights Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 11. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Belgium Congo annexation treaty, summary. New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Belgium Congo treaty provides for an annuity. New York Herald. Dec. 13. p. 3, col. 1.
  • Belgians oppose annexation treaty. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Liberals in Parliament oppose Congo annexation. New York Times. Dec. 19. p. 4, col. 5.
  • Belgian treaty held for consideration. New York Herald. Dec. 25. p. 9, col. 1.

1908

  • Congo cruelties, pictures of natives cut off. "American". New York Herald. Jan. 5. p. 3, col. .
  • Expedition (Thomas F. Ryan's) in battle with Congo natives of whom 125 are killed. New York Herald. Jan. 5. p. 3, col. 1.
  • Belgians object to King's crown domain scheme. New York Herald. Jan. 10. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Congo annexation groups hold apptmt of Interior Min Schollaert as Belgian Premier will help their cause. New York Times. Jan. 10. p. 3, col. 2.
  • Congo exploring expedition report of E. Dorsey Mohan at head of. New York Herald. Jan. 12. p. 5, col. 1.
  • Congo treaty, King Leopold likely to eliminate objectionable features. New York Herald. Jan. 15. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Fund of $30 million to be provided by people to be used by King for National benefit. New York Herald. Feb. 6. p. 8, col. 6.
  • Belgium annexation of Congo question again up. New York Herald. Feb. 24. p. 9, col. 2.
  • King Leopold retracts all his promises on Congo settlement; demands control of special fund for Congo and grant of $50 million for special projects; Govt reptd ready to resign if King presses demands. New York Times. Feb. 24. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Brit Hse of Commons supports Govt move to transfer control of Congo region. New York Times. Feb. 27. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Belgium King Leopold's agreement as to Congo described. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 11, col. 3.
  • American concession may be declared invalid. Tribune. New York Herald. Mar. 4. p. 7, col. 1.
  • King Leopold and Belgian Govt agree on annexation of Congo and provision of funds. New York Times. Mar. 4. p. 4, col. 3.
  • King makes sweeping concessions in treaty providing for annexation of Congo; allegedly dreads Brit intervention backed by US. New York Times. Mar 5. p. 7, col. 2.
  • Belgium Congo concession to by King Leopold who resented U.S. intervention. New York Herald. Mar. 5. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Terms of Belgium Congo annexation treaty. New York Herald. Mar. 6. p. 9, col. 3.
  • King reptd required to protect Amer grants in turning Congo over to Belgium; France to be offered Congo if Parliament does not ratify treaty. New York Times. Mar. 6. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Belgian opposition fights T. F. Ryan concession in Congo. New York Times. Mar. 7. p. 4, col. 5.
  • Belgium Congo annexation treaty, considerable opposition to. New York Herald. Mar. 7. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Belgium Congo treaty map yet to be defeated. New York Herald. Mar. 10. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Belgium Congo annexation treaty adopted. New York Herald. Mar. 19. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgian Commission accepts part of the annexation scheme. New York Herald. Mar. 26. p. 11, col. 1.
  • E. D. Morel, sec of Congo Reform Assn, warns of Anglo-Amer intervention if Belgium fails to annex Congo by June. New York Times. Apr. 14. p. 4, col. 5.
  • Congo Govt calls Brit White Book repts on corruption untrue. New York Times. Apr. 15. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Belgian chambers debate on Congo annexation, Socialists attack govt.. New York Herald. Apr. 16. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Belgian chamber debate on Congo annexation & Socialist attack govt. New York Herald. Apr. 17. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Socialist Deputy Bertrand denounces Leopold for squandering millions that allegedly should have gone to Congo Free State. New York Times. Apr. 17. p. 1, col. 6.
  • Leopold sends objects to American Museum of Natural History. New York Times. Apr. 19. p. 8, col. 3.
  • America and the Congo Negotiations with Belgium regarding annexation still proceeding. New York Herald. Apr. 29. p. 9, col. 1.
  • American syndicate feared in Congo by Belgium deputy Janson. New York Herald. May 6. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Trusts in Congo feared by Deputy Janson in speech at Belgium Chamber of Deputies. New York Herald. May 6. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Annexation of Congo certain says Henry Lane Wilson. New York Herald. May 20. p. 13, col. 1.
  • British improvements for free trade, America giving support. New York Herald. May 25. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Repts of Belgian King's enforeced retirement because of Congo deadlock not substantiated. New York Times. June 14. p. 1, col. 5.
  • Belgian Govt consents to Brit-Amer stipulations in annexing Congo. New York Times. June 16. p. 6, col. 2.
  • Great Britain dissatisfied with conditions in Congo. New York Herald. July 1 p 8, col. 6.
  • Disputed questions, Belgium agrees to arbitrate after annexation. New York Herald. Aug. 4. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Lands to be distributed after annexation to Belgium. New York Herald. Aug. 4. p. 9, col. 6.
  • Revolt of Batelas tribesmen in Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 5. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Treaty annexing Congo state to Belgium passed by Chamber of Deputies. New York Herald. Aug. 21. p. 9, col. 5.
  • Belgian Chamber of Deputies votes to annex Congo but refuses to guarantee payment of interest on debt. New York Times. Aug. 21. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Belgian Sen begins consideration of annexation. New York Times. Aug. 28. p. 6, col. 7.
  • Belgium Senate considers annexation of the Congo. New York Herald. Aug. 28. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Belgium Senate adopts the annexation treaty. New York Herald. Sept. 10. p. 8, col. 5.
  • Congo officials prepare for Pres Roosevelt's trip to Africa. New York Times. Sept. 24. p. 18, col. 3.
  • Independent State, publishes its last official document and defends King Leopold against falsehoods. New York Herald. Oct. 3. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Gold, tin, copper found in Congo by Mohun Expedition. New York Herald. Oct. 30. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Date for Belgium to assume sovereignty over Congo. New York Herald. Oct. 31. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Belgium formally assumes control over Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 16. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Capt Baccari, special comr of Ital Govt to investigate Congo, issues rept saying civilizing efforts there failure. New York Times. Nov. 29. p. 4, col. 4.
  • British note of protest as to present government of Congo. New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 12, col. 4.
  • Congo Reform Association makes public British note to Belgium as to Congo State Gov't. New York Herald. Dec. 12. p. 12, col. 4.
  • French and Belgian agreement signed. New York Herald. Dec. 24. p. 9, col. 1.

1909

  • Belgian Govt expected to prosecute Amer Presb missionaries Rev Dr. T. N. Morrison and W. H. Sheppard for denouncing Belgian adm methods. New York Times. Jan. 17. p. 3, col. 4.
  • Sec. E. Root reply to Belgian Min Moncheur outlines 5 demands on Belg. before recognition of her sovereignty over Congo. New York Times. Jan 29 p 6, col. 2.
  • Savages eat two officials. New York Herald. Feb. 19. p. 11, col. 1.
  • Belgium firm reply to reservations of Great Britain in Congo policy. New York Herald. Mar. 2. p. 10, col. 5.
  • Belgium replies to Brit-US reservations on Congo internal affairs. New York Times. Mar. 2. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Lieutenant Arnold sentenced for cruelties. New York Herald. Mar. 10. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgian Socialist leader E. Vandervelde denounces '09 decree that would force natives to labor on pub undertakings, Belgian Chamber of Deputies. New York Times. Apr. 1. p. 4, col. 3.
  • Natives employed by Congo are reduced in number and all salaries are paid in money. New York Herald. Apr. 2. p. 9, col. 3.
  • Certain Belgian concessionaires file libel suit against Morrison and Sheppard for the Jan '08 article in Kassai Herald charging concessionaires committed atrocities against natives who failed to gather sufficient rubber. New York Times. Apr. 17. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Belgian colonies Min Renkin to make inspection tour. New York Times. Apr. 23. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Kasai rubber trust brings libel suit against Rev. William Morrison and Rev. W. H. Sheppard, must prove cruelty charges. New York Herald. May 10. p. 9, col. 1.
  • President Taft asked to protect Drs. Morrison and Sheppard involved in slander case. New York Herald. May 22. p. 5, col. 4.
  • Southern Presbyterians ask American government to aid Revs. Morrison and Sheppard. New York Herald. May 23. p. 6, col. 5.
  • Missionaries Morrison and Sheppard trial postponed. New York Herald. June 8. p. 9, col. 2. U. S.
  • Presbyterian board of Foreign missions asks government aid. New York Herald. June 8. p. 5, col. 4.
  • King Leopold recommends Belgium at Congo annexation festivities. New York Herald. June 14. p. 9, col. 2.
  • King Leopold comments on importance of Congo to Belgium's future. New York Times. June 14. p. 4, col. 2.
  • Leopold lauds American consul Diederich at reception. New York Herald. June 15. p. 9, col. 1.
  • Congo Reform Association to ask Secretary Knox to see that two Presbyterian missionaries awaiting trial for libel have fair play. New York Herald. June 23. p. 4, col. 7.
  • Rubber libel trial, State Dept. asked to intercede for Rev. Wm. H. Sheppard. New York Herald. June 26. p. 15, col. 1.
  • Belgium Govt publishes gray Book on Amer-Brit-Belgian talks relating to annexation of Congo Ind State. New York Times. July 7. p. 5, col. 3.
  • Belgium rule in Congo and British rule in India assailed by London and Paris papers on same day. New York Herald. July 13. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Missionaries Rev. W. M. Morrison and Rev. W. H. Sheppard to be defended by Vandervelde, Socialist. New York Herald. Aug. 2. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Explorer H Lang makes 1st report to AMNH on expedition to collect flora and fauna specimen. New York Times. Aug. 8. p. 4, col. 1.
  • Sir A C Doyle to London Times deplores cruelties to natives; calls for international conf to take trust of Congo away from Belgium. New York Times. Aug. 22. p. 3, col. 4.
  • French Congo war, and several officers and men killed in action. New York Herald. Aug. 28. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Libel trial of Sheppard and Morrison deferred until Sept 24. New York Herald. Sept. 4. p. 8, col. 4.
  • Belg. Prince Albert seen hope for future of Congo. New York Times. Sept 5 p 2, col 7.
  • Cannibalism rampant. New York Herald. Sept. 7. p. 11, col. 4.
  • Rev. W. H. Sheppard is acquitted of libel charge and review of case. New York Herald. Oct. 6. p. 11, col. 5.
  • Horrors of Congo exposed "American". New York Herald. Oct. 13. p. 7, col. 1.
  • Doyle bk The Crime of the Congo urges Congo partition and war, iff necessary, to reform conditions; urges GB, US and other powers break Belgian rule. New York Times. Oct. 21. p. 8, col. 7.
  • King Leopold gives money to fight sleeping sickness in Congo, Gov't to give free trade and schools to open. New York Herald. Oct. 29. p. 9, col. 4.
  • Great Britain and Germany agree as to commerce in Congo. New York Herald. Nov. 24. p. 11, col. 6.
  • British Uganda, German East Africa and Congo boundary dispute settled. New York Herald. Nov. 30. p. 9, col. 2.
  • Belgium protests to world against criticism of Congo administration. New York Herald. Dec. 6. p. 11, col. 5.
  • Pres W. H. Taft says US attitude toward country is benevolent encouragement, message to US Congress, text. New York Times. Dec. 8. p. 6, col. 1.
  • Belgium pleased with references of President Taft to Congo in message. New York Herald. Dec. 9. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Belgium defends her policy in Congo and strong protest made against British attacks. New York Herald. Dec. 19. p. 12, col. 2.
  • Purchase of Congo by U.S. and placing of Roosevelt at its head advocated by letter of C. C. Overton. New York Herald. Dec. 22. p. 10, col. 7.
  • Civilization promised by King Albert I. New York Herald. Dec. 24. p. 9, col. 3.

1910

  • Belgium administration in Congo defended by Archbishop Ireland. New York Herald. Jan. 4. p. 11, col. 3.
  • Belgium Chamber of Commerce passes budget, no change in labor clause. New York Herald. Feb. 18. p. 11, col. 7.
  • King Albert advocates a transcolonial railroad, Government will treat natives justly. New York Herald. May 1. p. 11, col. 4.
  • World missionary conference receives report on Congo. New York Herald. June 21. p. 12, col. 1.
  • Stopping a Congo cannibal feast, story by Baron A. B. D'Altomonte, illustrated. New York Herald. Nov. 13. p. 3, col.

1916

  • Lang speaks at Explorers Club. New York Times. Jan. 15. p. 3, col. 8.

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