Jesup North Pacific Expedition

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The Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1902) was sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History in New York City to investigate the links between the people and the cultures of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America and the Eastern Coast of Siberia. Ostensibly the goal of the expedition was to prove the Bering Strait Migration theory which postulated that the North American continent was populated by the migration of Asian peoples across the Bering Strait. However, Franz Boas, the leader of the expedition was more concerned with documenting the cultures on both sides of the Northern Pacific that he and many other anthropologists feared were soon to be lost to colonialism and acculturation.

Because many northern peoples had been decimated by disease and were under pressure to assimilate to Russian or North American society, members of the Expedition also believed that they were making a final record of vanishing cultures. With a sense of urgency, they observed social practices, made wax-cylinder recordings of folktales and oral literature for linguistic analysis, collected artifacts, amassed data on physical "types," and made numerous photographs, producing a detailed record of life in the Greater North Pacific Region one hundred years ago. Although the expedition did not yield a precise ethno-history of the first Americans, it provided a wealth of data on variations and connections between populations on both sides of Pacific that scholars still draw on today. This record is an equally valuable resource for northern peoples today.

Hand-Colored Culture Distribution Map drawn by Franz Boas [1896]
Hand-Colored Culture Distribution Map drawn by Franz Boas [1896]. AMNH Catalog No: Z/171

Expedition scientists systematically studied the cultural, physical, and linguistic attributes of peoples living in the Greater North Pacific Region. This huge area which extends like a giant arc from the Northwest Coast of North America to the Bering Strait and along the Pacific Coast of Siberia to the cultural borderlands of China, Korea, and Japan.

Morris K. Jesup, then president of the Museum, financed the expedition. On the North American Side, Boas, with Livingston Farrand and James Teit, studied the Lillooet, Shuswap, and Chilcotin of British Columbia. Teit would also work with the Nlaka'pamux. At the village of Bella Coola, Boas joined his principal assistant and collaborator, George Hunt, to work with Nuxalk informants and Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutal) texts. In the expedition's second year, he visited Alert Bay to continue his life-long research with Hunt on Kwakwala'wakw culture. John R. Swanton researched the Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands.

The Siberian team covered a far larger area under much more difficult conditions. Berthold Laufer studied the Nivkh, Evenk, and Ainu of Sakhalin Island. He then crossed over to the Siberian mainland to study the Nanai and related peoples of the Amur River region. Waldemar Bogoras began his research on Chukotka at the mouth of the Anadyr River, spending four months with the Chukchi who made their summer camps along the seacoast. Leaving his wife behind to continue expedition work in Marinsky Post, Bogoras spent the next year journeying through a territory ranging from Indian Point and Saint Lawrence Island in the northeast to Kamchatka in the southwest.

Traveling mostly by dogsled, he continued his research in communities of Chukchi, Even, and Asiatic Eskimo. Waldemar Jochelson and Dina Jochelson-Brodskaya worked with the Maritime Koryak of Kamchatka and the Yukagir in the vicinity of the Kolyma River, traveling by sled, river raft, or on foot when a navigable river unexpectedly froze. On their westward journey home, the Jochelsons traveled through Yakutia, where they researched and collected from the Sakha. Correspondence from the field gives a vivid picture of the conditions under which these several scientists worked.



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Provided by Igor Krupnik

The Jesup North Pacific Expedition

  • Boas, Franz, series ed. 1898-1930. Memoirs of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vols. 1-11.New York: American Museum of Natural History. (includes publicatiuons by Franz Boas, Waldemar Bogoras, Livingston Farrand, Gerard Fowke, George Hunt, Waldemar Jochelson, Berthold Laufer, Harlan Smith, John R. Swanton, James Teit,and Bruno Oetteking.)
  • Boas, Franz. 1897. The Social Organization and Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. Washington: National Museum.
  • Boas, Franz. 1903. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. The American Museum Journal 3 (5):72-119.
  • Boas, Franz. 1905. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Proceedings of the International Congress of Americanists, 13th Session, New York, 1902, Pp. 91-100.
  • Boas, Franz. 1920. The Social Organization of the Kwakiutl. American Anthropologist. 22:111-26.
  • Boas, Franz. 1935. Kwakiutl Culture as Reflected in Mythology. American Folklore Society, Memoir 28.
  • Boas, Franz. 1940. Race, Language and Culture. New York: Free Press.
  • Boas, Franz. 1966. Kwakiutl Ethnography. Edited and abridged, with an introduction by Helen Codere. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Boas, Franz. 1973. Relations between North-west America and North-east Asia. In The American Aborigines: Their Origin and Antiquity. Diamond Jenness, ed., Pp. 357-70. New York: Cooper Square Pub. [1933] Folk-lore Society.
  • Bogoras, Waldemar. 1902. Folklore of Northeastern Asia as Compared with that of Northwestern America. American Anthropologist 4: 577-681.
  • Bogoras, Waldemar.1924. New Problems of Ethnological Research in Polar Countries, The 21st International Congress of Americanists. The Hague.
  • Bogoras, Waldemar.1929 Elements of the Culture of the Circumpolar Zone. American Anthropologist. n.s. 3 (4): 579-601.
  • Emmons, George T. 1991. The Tlingit Indians. Frederica de Laguna, ed. New York and Seattle: American Museum of Natural History with University of Washington Press. 190
  • Freed, Stanley A., Ruth S. Freed, and Laila Williamson. 1988. Capitalist Philanthropy and Russian Revolutionaries: The Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1902). American Anthropologist 90 (1):7-24.
  • Gurvic, I.S. & L.P. Kusmina. 1985. W.G. Bogoras et W.I. Jochelson: Deux Éminents Représentants de l'Ethnographie Russe, (1), Inter-Nort. 17, 145-151.
  • Jochelson, Waldemar. 1926. The Ethnological Problems of the Bering Sea. Natural History 26 (1): 90-95.
  • Jochelson, Waldemar. 1928. Peoples of Asiatic Russia. New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Jochelson, Waldemar. 1933 a.The Yakut. New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Jochelson, Waldemar. 1933 b.History, Ethnology, and Anthropology of the Aleut. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington.
  • Laufer, Berthold. 1900. Preliminary Notes on Explorations among the Amoor Tribes. American Anthropologist. 2: 297-338.
  • Shternberg, Lev Iakovlevich. n.d. The Social Organization of the Gilyak [unpublished translation manuscript]. Archives of the Department of Anthropology, The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Stocking, George W., Jr. 1974 ed. The Shaping of American Anthropology, 1883-1911: A Franz Boas Reader. New York: Basic Books.
  • Troubetzkoy, Wladimir. 1980. Les Décembristes, Ethnographes de la Sibérie, L'Ethnographie. Pp.135-173.

Works About Franz Boas and his Legacy

  • Blackman, Margaret B. 1977. Blankets, Bracelets, and Boas: The Potlatch in Photographs. Anthropological Papers of the University
  • Bunzel, Ruth L. 1960 Introduction to "Franz Boas (1858-1942)". In The Golden Age of American Anthropology. Margaret Mead and Ruth Bunzel, eds. Pp. 403-404. New York: George Brazillier.
  • Darnell, Regna Diebold. 1970. The Development of American Anthropology 1897-1920: From the Bureau of American Ethnology to Franz Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
  • Goldschmidt, W., ed. 1959 The Anthropology of Franz Boas: Essays on the Centennial of His Birth. American
  • Hellman, Geoffre. 1969. Bankers, Bones, and Beetles.
  • Herskovits, Melville J. 1953. Franz Boas: The Science New York Scribner & Sons.
  • Hinsley, Curtis M., and Bill Holm. 1976. A Cannibal in the National Museum: The Early Career of Franz Boas in America.
  • Hyatt, M. 1990. Franz Boas, Social Activist: The Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Jacknis, Ira. 1980. Franz Boas and Photography.
  • Jacknis, Ira. 1985. Franz Boas and Exhibits: On the Limitations of the Museum Method of Anthropology. In Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture. George W. Stocking,
  • Jacknis, Ira. 1992 a George Hunt, Kwakiutl Photographer. In Anthropology and the Camera: 1860-1920. Elizabeth Edwards (ed.) Pp. 143-151.
  • Jacknis, Ira. 1992 b The Artist Himself: The Salish Basketry Monograph and the Beginnings of a Boasian Paradigm. In Janet C. Berlo The Early Years of Native American History. Seattle & London:
  • Jonaitis, Aldona. 1995. A Wealth of Thought: Franz Boas on Native American Art.
  • Jonaitis, Aldona. 1992. Franz Boas, John Swanton, Charles Edenshaw, and the Creation of 'New' Haida Art at the American Museum of Natural History. In The Early Years of Native American Art History.
  • Krause, Aurel. 1956. The Tlingit Indians: Results of a Trip to the Northwest Coast of America and the Bering Straits. (trans. by Erna Gunther, originally published as Die Tlinkit-Indianer
  • Kroeber, A. L., R. Benedict, M. B. Emeneau, M. J. Herskovits, G. A. Reichard and J. A. Mason. 1943. Franz Boas, 1858-1942. Washington: American Anthropological Association.
  • Lesser, Alexander. 1981. Franz Boas. In Totems and Teachers: Perspectives on the History of Anthropology. Sydel Silverman, ed. Pp. 1-33. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Preston, Douglas J. 1986. Anthropology In Dinosaurs in the Attic: an Excursion into the American Museum of Natural History. Pp. 176-191. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Rohner, Ronald P., ed. 1969. The Ethnography of Franz Boas: Letters and Diaries of Franz Boas Written on the Northwest Coast from 1886 to 1931. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Sanjek, Roger. 1990 ed. Fieldnotes: The Makings of Anthropology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. In Press Franz Boas In Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spencer, eds, London: Routledge
  • Vakhtin, Nikolai. n.d. Franz Boas and the Shaping of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1895-1900: A Russian Perspective. Unpublished ms.
  • White, Leslie A. 1963. The Ethnography and Ethnology of Franz Boas. Bulletin of the Texas Memorial Museum, No. 6. Austin: Texas Memorial Museum.
  • Williams, Vernon J. 1996. Rethinking Race: Franz Boas and his Contemporaries. Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Wolf, E. 1994. Perilous Ideas: Race, Culture, People, Current Anthropology. 35:1-12.

Anthropology of the Greater North Pacific Region since the Jesup North Pacific Expedition

  • Anderson, David. 1991. Turning Hunters into Herders: A Critical Examination of Soviety Development Policy among the Evenki of southeaster Siberia. Arctic 44/1:12-22.
  • Arutiunov, Sergei. 1979. he Genetic Structure of Asiatic Eskimos and Coastal Chukchis Compared to that of American Arctic Populations. Arctic Anthropology 16 (1): 147-64.
  • Arutiunov, Sergie and D. Sergeev. 1968. Two Millenia of Cultural Evolution of Bering Sea Hunters. Arctic Anthropology 5 (1): 27-31.
  • Austerlitz, Robert. 1977. The Study of Paleosiberian Languages. In Roman Jakobson: Echoes of His Scholarship. Lisse: The Peter de Ridder Press.
  • Austerlitz, Robert. 1978. Folklore, Nationality, and the Twentieth Century in Siberia and the Soviet Far East. In Folklore, Nationalism and Politics. Felix Oinas, ed. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica.
  • Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam. 1990 ed. Shamanism: Soviet Studies of Traditional Religion in Siberia and Central Asia. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
  • Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam. 1993 a. "Dilemmas of the Spirit: religion and atheism in the Yakut-Sakha Republic." In Religious Policy in the Soviet Union, S. Ramet, ed. Pp. 231-251. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press.
  • Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam. 1993 b. Two Urban Shamans: Unmasking Leadership in Fin-de-Soviet Siberia. In Perilous States: Conversations on Culture, Politics, and Nation. George E. Marcus, ed. Pp. 131-164. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam. 1996. Flights of the Sacred: Symbolism and Theory in Siberian Shamanism. American Anthropologist. 98(2):305-318.
  • Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam and Uliana Alekseevna Vinokurova. 1996. Nationalism, Interethnic Relations and Federalism: The Case of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Europe-Asia Studies. 48 (1): 101-120.
  • Benedict, Ruth. 1959. The Northwest Coast of America. In Patterns of Culture. (New edition with a preface by Margaret Mead). Pp. 173-222. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
  • Black, Lydia. 1972. Relative Status of Wife Givers and Wife Takers in Gilyak Society. American Anthropologist. 74:(5):1244-1248.
  • Black, Lydia. 1973. The Nivkh (Gilyak) of Sakhalin and the Lower Amur. Arctic Anthropology. 10 (1):1-110..
  • Blackman, Margaret B. 1982 a. During My Time: Florence Edenshaw Davidson, a Haida Woman. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Blackman, Margaret B. 1982 b. The Afterimage and Image After: Visual Documents and the Renaissance in Northwest Coast Art. American Indian Art Magazine. 7 (2):30-39.
  • Blackman, Margaret B. 1990. Facing the Future, Envisioning the Past: Visual Literature and Contemporary Northwest Coast Masks. Arctic Anthropology. 27 (2):27-40.
  • Blackman, Margaret B. and Brenda J. Child. 1989. Sadie Brower Neakok, an Inupiaq Woman. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Boyd, Robert T. 1990. Demographic History, 1774-1874. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, Northwest Coast. W. Suttles, ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Burch, Ernest S., Jr. 1974. Eskimo Warfare in Northwest Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska: 1611-14.
  • Cannizzo, Jeanne. 1983. George Hunt and the Invention of Kwakiutl Culture. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology. 20:44-58.
  • Chance, Norman A. and Margaret Blackman. 1990. The Inupiat and Arctic Alaska: An Ethnography of Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
  • Chaussonnet, Valerie. 1995. Crossroads Alaska/Siberia. Washington: Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center.
  • Codere, Helen. 1950. Fighting with Property: A Study of Kwakiutl Potlatching and Warfare, 1792-1930. American Ethnological Society Monograph 18. Reprint, Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Codere, Helen. 1956. The Amiable Side of Kwakiutl Life: The Potlatch and Play Potlatch. American Anthropologist. 58:334-51.
  • Codere, Helen. 1961. Kwakiutl. In Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change. E. Spicer, ed. Pp. 431-516. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Codere, Helen. 1990. Kwakiutl: Traditional Culture. In Handbook of North American Indians Vol 7, Northwest Coast. W. Suttles (ed.) Pp. 171-189. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Cole, Douglas. 1982. Tricks of the Trade: Northwest Coast Artifact Collecting, 1875-1925. Canadian Historical Review. 63:439-60.
  • Cole, Douglas. 1985. Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre.
  • Cole, Douglas and Ira Chaikin. 1990. An Iron Hand upon the People: the Law against the Potlatch on the Northwest Coast. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Collins, Henry B. 1937. Culture Migrations and Contacts in the Bering Sea Region. American Anthropologist. 39(3):375-84.
  • Committee on Arctic Social Sciences, National Research Council.1993. Arctic Contributions to Social Science and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Cruikshank, Julie, and Margaret B. Blackman. 1990. Life Lived Like a Story: Life Stories of Three Yukon Elders. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Czaplicka, M.A.. 1914. Aboriginal Siberia: A Study in Siberian Anthropology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Damas, David, ed. 1984. Arctic. (Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 5. William C. Sturtevant, General Editor). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • de Laguna, Frederica. 1972. Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit. Pt. 1, II & III. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Drucker, Philip. 1951. The Northern and Central Nooktan Tribes. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of the American Ethnology, Bulletin 144.
  • Drucker, Philip. 1965. Cultures of the North Pacific Coast. San Francisco: Chandler and Sharp.
  • Drucker, Philip and Robert F. Heizer. 1967. To Make My Name Good: A Reexamination of the Southern Kwakiutl Potlatch. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Dumond, Don. E. 1977. Eskimos and Aleuts. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Fagan, Brian M. 1987. The Great Journey: The Peopling of Ancient America. New York and London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Ferguson, R. Brian. 1983. A Reexamination of Causes of Northwest Coast Warfare. In Warfare, Culture, and Environment. Pp. 267-328. Orlando: Academic Press.
  • Fienup-Riordan, Anne. 1988. Robert Redford, Apanuugpak, and the Invention of Tradition. American Ethnologist. 15(3):442-455.
  • Fienup-Riordan, Anne. 1990. Eskimo Essays: Yup'ik Lives and How We See Them. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
  • Fienup-Riordan, Anne. 1996 ed. Agayuliyararput: Our Way of Making Prayer (transcribed and translated by Marie Meade). Seattle: University of Washington Press and Anchorage Museum of History and Art.
  • Fitzhugh, William. 1975 ed. Prehistoric Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Fitzhugh, William W., R. Auger, L. Gullason and A. Henshaw. 1995. Material Evidence from the Frobisher Voyages: Anglo-Inuit Contact in the North American Arctic in the late Sixteenth Century. In Trade and Discovery: The Scientific Study of Artifacts from Post-Medieval Europe and Beyond. Duncan R. Hook and David Gaimster. London: British Museum Occasional Paper 109:13-28.
  • Fitzhugh, William W. and Valerie Chaussonnet, eds. 1994. Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Fitzhugh, William W. and Aron Crowell, eds. 1988. Crossroads of Continents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Fondahl, Gail A. 1993. Siberia: Native Peoples and Newcomers in Collision. In Nation and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras, eds. Pp. 477-509
  • Ford, Clellan S., ed. 1941. Smoke from their Fires: The Life of a Kwakiutl Chief. New Haven,: Yale University Press.
  • Forsyth, James. 1992. A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gellner, Ernest, ed.1980. Soviet and Western Anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Gough, Barry M. 1984. Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  • Graburn, Nelson H. 1972. Eskimos of Northern Canada. New Haven, Ct.: Human Relations Area Files
  • Graburn, Nelson H. 1976 Ethnic and Tourist Arts: Cultural Expressions from the Fourth World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Graburn, Nelson H. 1986 Alaska Commercial Company: Commerce and Curios 1868-1904. Exhibition at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley. Berkeley, CA: The Museum.
  • Graburn, Nelson H. and B. Stephen Strong. 1973. Circumpolar Peoples: An Anthropological Perspective. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing Co.
  • Grant, Bruce. 1995. In the Soviet House of Culture: A Century of Perestroikas. Princeton: Princeton University Press
  • Gurvich, Il'ia S. 1979. An Ethnographic Study of Cultural Parallels among the Aboriginal Population of Northern Asia and Northern North America. Arctic Anthropology. 16 (1): 32-38.
  • Holm, Bill. 1965. Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Holm, Bill. 1972. Crooked Beak of Heaven: Masks and Other Ceremonial Art of the Northwest Coast. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Holm, Bill. 1977. Traditional and Contemporary Kwakiutl Winter Dances. Arctic Anthropology. 14:5-24.
  • Holm, Bill. 1987. Spirit and Ancestor: a Century of Northwest Coast Indian Art at the Burke Museum. Seattle: Burke Museum and University of Washington Press.
  • Holm, Bill and George Irving Quimby. 1980. Edward S. Curtis in the Land of the War Canoes: A Pioneer Cinematographer in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • International Work Group of Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA). 1990. Indigenous Peoples of the Soviet North, Document No. 67, Copenhagen
  • Irimoto, Takashi and Takako Yamada. 1995. Circumpolar Religion and Ecology: An Anthropology of the North. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
  • Jonaitis, Aldona. 1986. Art of the Northern Tlingit. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Jonaitis, Aldona. 1988. From the Land of the Totem Poles. New York and Seattle: American Museum of Natural History and the University of Washington Press.
  • Jonaitis, Aldona. 1991 ed. Chiefly Feasts: An Enduring Kwakiutl Potlatch. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Jonaitis, Aldona, and Aaron Glass. 2010. The totem pole: an intercultural history. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Kan, Sergei. 1991. Shamanism and Christianity: Modern-Day Tlingit Elders look at the Past. Ethnohistory. 38(Fall): 363-387.
  • Kan, Sergei. 1989. Symbolic Immortality: The Tlingit Potlatch of the Nineteenth Century. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Kertulla, Anna. 1991. The Chukchi Reindeer Herders of Sireniki:Social and Cultural Change among Native People under Soviet Ideology. [Series: One Man's Heritage Project of the Shared Beringian Heritage Program: Ethnohistory.] U.S. National Parks Service.
  • Komarov, B. 1980. The Destruction of Nature in the Soviet Union. London: Pluto Press.
  • Krupnik, Igor. 1990. Cultures in Contact: The Population Nadir in Siberia and North America. Native American Studies. 4(1):11-18
  • Krupnik, Igor. 1993. Arctic Adaptations, Native Whalers and Herders in Northern Eurasia. 2nd Revised Edition. Hanover, NH: The University Press of New England.
  • Krupnik, Igor. 1994. Arctic Adaptations: Native Whalers and Reindeer herders of Northern Eurasia. Expanded English Edition. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
  • Krupnik, Igor and Michael Chlenov. In Press Survival in Contact: Asiatic Eskimo Transitions, 1900-1990. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Kuoljok, Kerstin Eidlitz. 1985. The Revolution in the North: Soviet Enthography and Nationality Policy. Stockholm: Alqvist and Wiksell.
  • Kwon, Heonik. 1993. Maps and Actions: Nomadic and Sedentary Space in a Siberian Reindeer Farm. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Cambridge.
  • Larsen, Helge, and Froelich Rainey. 1948. Ipiutak and Arctic Whale Hunting Cultures. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. 42(1):1-276.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1943. The Art of the Northwest Coast at the American Museum of Natural History. Gazette des Beaux-Arts., Pp. 175-82.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1982. The Way of the Masks. (Translation of La Voie des Masques, 1975, by Sylvia Modelski) Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Levin, Maksim and Leonid Potapov. 1964. The Peoples of Siberia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Macnair, Peter, Alan L. Hoover and Kevin Neary. 1980. The Legacy: Continuing Traditions of Canadian Northwest Coast Indian Art. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.
  • Majewicz, Alfred E. 1992. Collected Works of Bronislaw Pil'sudskii. vol. 1: The Aborigines of Sakhalin. Compiled and translated, with an introduction, by Alfred Majewicz. Steszew, Poland: International Institute of Ethnolinguistic and Oriental Studies.
  • McIlwraith, Thomas F. 1948. The Bella Coola Indians. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Matson, R.G. and Gary Coupland. 1994. The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Merck, C. H. 1980. Siberia and Northwestern America 1788-1792:The Journal of Carl Heinrich Merck, Naturalist with the Russian Scientific Expedition led by Captains Joseph Billings and Gavriil Sarychev. (Translated by Fritz Jaensch) Richard A. Pierce, ed. Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press.
  • Michael, Henry N. and James Van Stone, eds. 1983. Cultures of the Bering Sea: Papers from an International Symposium. New York: International Research and Exchange Board.
  • Morris, Rosalind C. 1994. New Worlds from Fragments: Film, Ethnography, and the Representation of Northwest Coast Cultures. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Murdoch, George Peter. 1934. The Haidas of British Columbia. In Our Primitive Contemporaries. New York: Macmillan.
  • Murdoch, George Peter. 1936. Rank and Potlatch among the Haida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No. 13. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Murdoch, John. 1892. Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition. Washington: Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, IX:3-441.
  • Murdoch, John. 1989. The Eskimo about Bering Strait. (Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report 18, 1899). Reprinted with an introduction by William W. Fitzhugh. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Nelson, Richard K. 1980. Shadow of the Hunter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Ousley, Stephen D. 1995. Relationships between Eskimos, Amerindians, and Aleuts: Old Data, New Perspectives. Human Biology. June, 67(3):427-458.
  • Pika, A. and B. Prokhorov. 1989. Soviet Union: The Big Problems of Small Ethnic Groups. IWGIA Newsletter. May, 57:123-135.
  • Rohner, Ronald P. and Evelyn C. Rohner. 1970. The Kwakiutl Indians of British Columbia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Rosman, A. and P.G. Rubel. 1971. Feasting with Mine Enemy: Rank and Exchange among Northwest Coast Societies. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Rosman, A. and P.G. Rubel. 1990. Structural Patterning in Kwakiutl Art and Ritual. Man n.s. 25:620-640.
  • Ross, William Gillies. 1983. The Sound of Eskimo Music. Beaver. Winter, 1984/85:28-36.
  • Rudenko, S. I. 1961. The Ancient Culture of the Bering Sea and the Eskimo Problem. Translated by Paul Tolstoy. Translations from Russian Sources 1. Henry N.Michael, ed. Toronto: Arctic Institute of North America, Anthropology of the North.
  • Sapir, Edward and Morris Swadesh. 1939. Nootka Texts: Tales and Ethnological Narratives with Grammatical Notes and Lexical Materials. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America.
  • Siikala, Anna-Leena. 1992. Siberian and Inner Asian Shamanism In Studies in Shamanism. Anna-Leena Siikala and Mihaly Hoppal. Pp. 1-14. Helsinki: Finnish Anthropological Society.
  • Slezkine, Yuri. 1991. The Fall of Soviet Ethnography, 1928-1938. Current Anthropology. 32(4):476-484.
  • Slezkine, Yuri. 1994. Arctic Mirrors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Smith, Graham, ed. 1990. The Nationalities Question in the Soviet Union. London: Longman.
  • Spencer, R.F. 1959. The North Alaska Eskimo. Washington: Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, CLXXI, 496 pp.
  • Spradley, James P., ed. 1969. Guests Never Leave Hungry: The Autobiography of James Sweid, A Kwakiutl Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Suttles, Wayne, ed. 1990. Northwest Coast. (Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, General Editor).Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Tishkov, Valery A. 1992. The Crisis in Soviet Ethnography. Current Anthropology 33 (4) (August-October): 371-382.
  • Vakhtin, Nikolai. 1992. Native Peoples of the Russian Far North. London: Minority Rights Group International.
  • Vitebsky, Piers. 1990. Yakut. The Nationalities Question in the Soviet Union. Graham Smith, ed. Pp. 304-319. New York: Longman.
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