“Tsimshian” means “people inside the Skeena River.” In this historic hall, the Nisg̱a’a, Gitxsan, and Tsimshian people are referred to together as “Tsimshian.” In the past, anthropologists categorized these three distinct nations as one people because they speak related languages.

Population: Approximately 10,700 (as of 2016)  Language: Sm'algya̱x, two dialects


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“The graduation gown and cedar woven hat that I'm wearing have Tsimshian designs on them by my husband Mike Dangeli to symbolize the way that my family, community, and ancestors have guided me on my educational journey.”

—Dr. Mique’l Dangeli (Sm Łoodm ’Nüüsm) Ph.D., art historian, dancer, and choreographer

Image Credit: George Lawson


In Tsimshian Territory





From the Collections: Tsimshian Drum


Drums keep rhythm at singing and dancing performances, especially at potlatches—large ceremonial feasts hosted by a chief. The complex design painted on the drum may represent a clan or family affiliation. An eagle at the center is circled by human figures—with the eagle’s tail forming one of the human heads.

This drum is from Tsimshian territory in northern British Columbia, Canada.

AMNH 16/748, acquired 1869–1890




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Family Crest

Kitsumkalum, British Columbia

Tsimshian families are matrilineal—descent is traced through the mother’s line—and are organized into four clans. Each clan is represented by its crest, or symbolic animal: Eagle, Killer Whale, Wolf, and Raven. Click on the button below to listen to a raven’s call.

Glenn Bartley/AGE Fotostock



Spirit Bear

Princess Royal Island, B.C.

On Princess Royal and Gibbell Islands, a fraction of the black bears are actually white, an inherited trait. The nearby Tsimshian communities of Gitga'at and Kitasoo/Xai'xais hold these white spirit bears as sacred. In 2016, most of the Great Bear Rainforest, which stretches across Tsimshian territory and beyond, was designated off-limits from logging, protecting the future of this bear and its vital forest.

Morales/AGE Fotostock





Image credit for lead photo: A. Davey